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Frontiers of Medicine

Front Med    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (1) : 53-59     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-013-0255-5
REVIEW |
Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids
Jingyi Lu1, Guoxiang Xie2,3, Weiping Jia1, Wei Jia2,3()
1. Shanghai Diabetes Institute; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus; Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai 200233, China; 2. Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China; 3. Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
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Abstract

Insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of metabolic syndrome and subsequently causes serious health problems with an increased risk of several common metabolic disorders. IR related metabolic disturbance is not restricted to carbohydrates but impacts global metabolic network. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), namely valine, leucine and isoleucine, are among the nine essential amino acids, accounting for 35% of the essential amino acids in muscle proteins and 40% of the preformed amino acids required by mammals. The BCAAs are particularly responsive to the inhibitory insulin action on amino acid release by skeletal muscle and their metabolism is profoundly altered in insulin resistant conditions and/or insulin deficiency. Although increased circulating BCAA concentration in insulin resistant conditions has been noted for many years and BCAAs have been reported to be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and body weight, it is only recently that BCAAs are found to be closely associated with IR. This review will focus on the recent findings on BCAAs from both epidemic and mechanistic studies.

Keywords branched-chain amino acids      leucine      isoleucine      valine      insulin resistance     
Corresponding Authors: Jia Wei,Email:w_jia@uncg.edu   
Issue Date: 05 March 2013
 Cite this article:   
Jingyi Lu,Guoxiang Xie,Weiping Jia, et al. Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids[J]. Front Med, 2013, 7(1): 53-59.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2013/V7/I1/53
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Fig.1  A schematic view of the contributions of BCAAs to development of insulin resistance. IR, insulin receptor.
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