Please wait a minute...

Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 545-569     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-020-0800-2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Catalytic steam reforming of tar for enhancing hydrogen production from biomass gasification: a review
Ru Shien TAN1, Tuan Amran TUAN ABDULLAH1(), Anwar JOHARI1, Khairuddin MD ISA2
1. Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy; School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2. School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Download: PDF(1241 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

Presently, the global search for alternative renewable energy sources is rising due to the depletion of fossil fuel and rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among alternatives, hydrogen (H2) produced from biomass gasification is considered a green energy sector, due to its environmentally friendly, sustainable, and renewable characteristics. However, tar formation along with syngas is a severe impediment to biomass conversion efficiency, which results in process-related problems. Typically, tar consists of various hydrocarbons (HCs), which are also sources for syngas. Hence, catalytic steam reforming is an effective technique to address tar formation and improve H2 production from biomass gasification. Of the various classes in existence, supported metal catalysts are considered the most promising. This paper focuses on the current researching status, prospects, and challenges of steam reforming of gasified biomass tar. Besides, it includes recent developments in tar compositional analysis, supported metal catalysts, along with the reactions and process conditions for catalytic steam reforming. Moreover, it discusses alternatives such as dry and autothermal reforming of tar.

Keywords hydrogen      biomass gasification      tar      steam reforming      catalyst     
Corresponding Author(s): Tuan Amran TUAN ABDULLAH   
Online First Date: 24 March 2020    Issue Date: 14 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Ru Shien TAN,Tuan Amran TUAN ABDULLAH,Anwar JOHARI, et al. Catalytic steam reforming of tar for enhancing hydrogen production from biomass gasification: a review[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 545-569.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-020-0800-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2020/V14/I3/545
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Ru Shien TAN
Tuan Amran TUAN ABDULLAH
Anwar JOHARI
Khairuddin MD ISA
Fig.1  Comparison between (a) fuel cell vehicle and (b) conventional vehicle.
Fig.2  A possible route of biomass gasification and proposed technique for improvement of syngas production.
Fig.3  Composition of gasified biomass tar derived from various biomass feedstock.
Class Description Properties Example
1 GC-undetectable Heaviest tars, condensable at high temperature
2 Heterocyclic aromatic HC Highly water-soluble Pyridine, phenol, cresols, quinoline, isoquinoline and dibenzophenol
3 Light aromatic HC
(1 ring)
Do not pose a condensation and solubility related problem Toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene
4 Light polycyclic aromatic HC
(2–3 rings)
Condensable at low temperature even with low concentration Indene, naphthalene, fluorine, phenanthrene and anthracene
5 Heavy polycyclic aromatic HC
(4–7 rings)
Condensable at high temperatures even with low concentration Fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, perylene and coronene
Tab.1  Tar classification based on molecular weight [53]
Reaction ΔH2980/(kJ·mol−1) Refs.
Steam reforming of hydrocarbon
C xHy+xH2O\hscale 50%?(x+12y)H2+CO
Steam reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbon
C xHyO z+( xz) H2O\hscale 50%?(x+ 12 yz)H 2+xCO
>0
>0
[24,69]
[24,69]
Water-gas shift
CO+H2O\hscale 50%?CO2 +H2
−41 [72,73]
Dry reforming
C xOy+xCO2\hscale 50%?12yH2+2xCO
>0 [48,74]
Hydrodealkylation
C xHy+H2Cx1Hy2 +CH4
<0 [74,75]
Methane steam reforming
CH 4+ H 2O?(g)\hscale 50%? CO+3H2
206.9 [74,75]
Carbon formation
C xHyxC+ 12 yH2
<0 [70,71]
Boudouard reaction
C+CO2\hscale 50%?2CO
172 [70,72]
Carbon gasification
C+H2O\hscale 50%?CO+ H 2
131 [70,71]
Tab.2  Possible reactions involved in gasified biomass tar steam reforming process
Fig.4  Possible reaction pathways for steam reforming of tar.
Active metals Supports Preparation methods Tar model compound Operating conditions Catalytic performance/% Remarks Ref.
Ni (10% (wt.)) Activated char Impregnation Toluene, naphthalene T = 800°C, S/C= 2, GHSV= 8000 h1 Tar conv. = 92–100, H2 comp. = 66–67 Structural damage and surface area deterioration were observed on spent catalyst [41]
Ni (10% (wt.)) Al2O3, MgO, CaO Toluene, phenol, naphthalene, pyrene T = 450°C, S/C= 5, GHSV= 1900 h1 Tar conv. = 80–100, H2 yield= 2–13 Ni/Al2O3 and Ni/CaO had an unstable behavior in H2 yield [79]
Ni (20% (wt.)) Al2O3 Impregnation Phenol, toluene, Furfural, methyl naphthalene, ndene, anisole T = 750°C, S/C= 3 C conv. = 90, H2 yield= 14.3 H2 yield is much lower than the potential H2 yield (63%) calculated from stoichiometry; O2 contributed the largest constitute of reformate followed by CO and H2 [24]
Cu (1% (wt.)) Calcined scallop shell Incipient wetness impregnation Tar derived from cedar wood gasification T = 700°C, Catalyst= 2 g, Water= 0.09 mL/min H2 yield= 60 mmol/gcarbon Existence of Ca(OH)2 on catalyst improved the basicity of catalyst and anti-coking ability [84]
Ru (1% (wt.)) 12SrO-7Al2O3 Physical mixing, impregnation Toluene T = 600°C, S/C= 2, W/F = 7 g h/mol Tar conv. = 80 Ru(PPh3)3Cl2 recognized as a better Ru precursor for a high catalytic activity as compared with RuCl3nH2O [87]
Pt (1.5% (wt.)) Al2O3, CeO2/Al2O3 Incipient wetness impregnation Toluene T = 700°C, Steam/toluene= 40 Tar conv. = 80–95, H2 comp. = 65–68, H2/CO= 6.5–8.5 Doping of CeO2 decreased the selectivity to CO but increased the selectivity to CO2; Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 produced a higher H2/CO [44]
Ba/Ni, Sr/Ni, Ca/Ni (2.28+ 5% (wt.)) LaAlO3 Pechini method /Impregnation Toluene T = 600°C, S/C= 2, WHSV= 27.1 h−1 C conv. = 28–44, H2 yield= 26–41 Toluene conversion and H2 yields increased drastically by the addition of alkaline-earth metals [97]
Ni/Ru-Mn (16+ 0.6+ 2.6% (wt.)) α-Al2O3 Incipient wetness impregnation Toluene T = 600°C, S/C= 25, GHSV= 10000 h−1 C conv. = 100, H2 comp. = 68.1 Formation of filamentous carbon which leads to reactor clogging and pressure drop was observed on spent catalyst surface [45]
Fe (10 wt.%)
Fe-Ni (5+ 5 wt.%)
Olivine Thermal fusion Toluene T = 850°C, S/C= 0.93, WHSV= 0.88 h1 Tar conv. = 98, H2 yield= 88-98 Tendency of carbon formation of Fe/olivine was slightly higher than Fe-Ni/olivine [42]
Pt/Ni (0.85+ 5 wt.%) La0.7Sr0.3AlO3−δ Pechini method/Impregnation Toluene T = 600°C, S/C= 8.9, GHSV= 12000 h−1 C conv. = 59.1, H2 yield= 52.7 Pt/Ni was the best impregnation order lead to a high H2 yield and a high tolerance to coking [111]
Ni, Co (10 wt.%)
Ni/Co (5+ 5 wt.%)
ZrO2 Impregnation Phenol T = 600°C, S/C= 9, WHSV= 115.56 h1 Tar conv. = 33–53, H2 yield= 24–51 Bimetallic catalyst exhibited better catalytic activity than monometallic catalysts [117]
Ni (20 wt.%) Lignite char, Al2O3 Ion exchange Toluene T = 650°C,
S/C= 2
H2 yield= 512–1125 mmol/g-Ni Lignite char is readily gasified and not suitable service as catalyst support for steam reforming [120]
Ni (10 wt.%) Activated carbon, olivine, Al2O3 Incipient wetness impregnation Toluene T = 600°C, S/C= 2, LHSV= 0.87 h1 C conv. = 18–100 The large surface area and microporous structure of activated carbon support contributed to a fine Ni particle distribution and consequently lead to a high catalytic activity [122]
LaNi0.5Mn0.5O3 Pechini method Toluene T = 700°C, S/C= 3, HSV= 20000 h1 Tar conv. = 100, H2 comp. = 42 Catalyst required high reduction temperature (up to 1000°C) [133]
V (3 wt.%) Mg/Al Co-precipitation /Impregnation Toluene T = 500°C, S/C= 2, WHSV= 16.6 h1 C conv. = 77.5, H2 comp. = 57 A higher V content presented a better activity in toluene conversion while a lower V content produced a higher H2 composition of reformate [138]
Tab.3  Summary of catalytic gasified biomass tar steam reforming processes
Catalyst Perovskite Hydrotalcite Conventional supported
General formula ABO3
where A= alkaline earth metal; B= transition metal
Mg6Al2CO3(OH)16·4(H2O) Metal oxide, oxides mineral, carbonaceous material
Examples of Ni based catalyst LaNi0.5Mn0.5O3, La0.9Ni0.2Mg0.1Al0.8O3 Ni/MgAl Ni/Al2O3, Ni/olivine, Ni/lignite char
Structure Crystal structure, nonstoichiometric oxygen Brucite-like structure, where Mg2+ attached with OH- ions to form octahedral structure
Synthesis method Complex, i.e., citrate method, solution combustion techniques Complex, i.e., urea hydrolysis, sol-gel method, microwave treatment Easier, i.e., impregnation, precipitation
Thermal stability Higher Higher Lower especially carbonaceous material
Resistance against coke deposition Stronger Stronger Weaker
Tab.4  Comparison of perovskite and hydrotalcite catalysts with conventional supported catalysts
Favored temp. /°C Tar model Catalyst Metal loading
/% (wt.)
Other operating condition Catalytic performance/% Remark Ref.
700–900 Toluene, toluene/naphthalene Ni/MgO/Al2O3 10.0 S/C= 1.5,
GHSV= 20000 h1
Tar conv. = 89–100, H2 comp. = 22–30 CO2 and CO are the main products at lower and higher temperatures, respectively;
large cyclic HCs have a higher thermal stability
[74]
800 Toluene Ru/α-Al2O3, Ni/α-Al2O3 2.0 S/C= 3.57, WHSV= 10000 h1 C conv. = 96–98, H2 comp. = 69–76 Ru is more stable and has a higher activity toward tar conversion than Ni [121]
800 Phenol Ni/g-Al2O3 10.0 S/C= 13, WHSV= 0.444 h1 C conv. = 57, H2 comp. = 14 The low conversion may be due to the use of the unreduced catalyst [31]
650–750 Toluene Ce0.4Ni0.6AlO3,
La0.2Ni0.8AlO3
5.8 S/C= 1.5, WHSV= 23068 h1 Tar conv. = 100, H2 comp. = 25–30 The present of CeO2 allows the full conversion of toluene at a lower temperature [150]
Tab.5  Favored temperature for H2 production in steam reforming of gasified biomass tar
Favored S/C ratio Tar model Catalyst Metal loading
(wt.%)
Other operating condition Catalytic performance (%) Remark Ref.
3.5–5.0 Toluene Ni/olivine, Ni/Ce/olivine, Ni/Ce/Mg/olivine 3.0 T = 790°C, GHSV= 782 C conv. = 59–93, H2 comp. = 60–66 Ni/Ce/Mg/olivine had a more stable performance at a low S/C ratio [158]
2.0 Benzene NiO/ceramic foam 3.5 T = 750°C, WHSV= 5.6 C conv. = 85.4, H2 comp. = 60 The H2 selectivity is not affected by S/C ratio in this case [156]
8.0 Phenol/ethanol Ni/Cu/sepiolite clay 20.0 T = 650°C, WHSV= 3.2 C conv. = 75, H2 yield= 73 The limit of S/C ratio is not achieved since carbon conversion showed an increased trend [159]
Tab.6  Favored S/C ratio for H2 production in the steam reforming of gasified biomass tar
Favored WHSV/h1 Tar model Catalyst Metal loading/% (wt.) Other operating condition Catalytic performance/% Remark Ref.
5000 Toluene Ru/α-Al2O3 2.0 T = 700°C, S/C= 1.43 Tar conv. = 87.4, H2 comp. = 61.5 Carbon conversion showed a decreased trend with space velocity, indicating that the adsorption-limited was not achieved [121]
10000 Toluene Ni/coal 10.6 T = 400°C, S/C= 15 H2 yield= 62 H2 yield was stabilized above 40000 h1, implying that the adsorption-limited was achieved [163]
0.1–0.4 Toluene, benzene, phenol Ni/Mg/Al, Ni-Fe/Mg/Al 12.0 T = 600°C, S/C= 1.67 Tar conv. = 100%,
H2/CO= 4.4–5.6
Ni-Fe alloy has a better performance than Ni-based catalyst although Ni based catalyst showed a higher H2/CO ratio of reformate [109]
Tab.7  Favored space velocity or space time for H2 production in steam reforming of gasified biomass tar
Fig.5  Mechanism of coke suppression by CeO2 support.
Fig.6  SEM images of (a) fresh NiO/ceramic catalyst (adapted with permission from Ref. 157]); (b) amorphous coked NiO/ceramic catalyst (adapted with permission from Ref.[157]); (c) filamentous coked Ni/α-Al2O3 catalyst (adapted with permission from Ref. [121]).
Fig.7  TPO profiles of spent Ni/Al2O3 and Fe-Ni/Al2O3 catalysts after steam reforming of toluene (adapted with permission from Ref. [102]).
Fig.8  Activity of LaNiO3 catalyst. Reaction condition: S/C 3.9; catalyst 0.03 g; temperature 650°C; He 120 mL/min (adpated with permission from Ref. [135]).
Fig.9  Schematic diagram.
Fig.10  Steam reforming of toluene in BBCN hollow fiber membrane reactor (adapted with permission from Ref. [202]).
1 P Nikolaidis, A Poullikkas. A comparative overview of hydrogen production processes. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 67: 597–611
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.044
2 M Idrees, V Rangari, S Jeelani. Sustainable packaging waste-derived activated carbon for carbon dioxide capture. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 2018, 26: 380–387
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2018.05.016
3 A L Yaumi, M Z A Bakar, B H Hameed. Recent advances in functionalized composite solid materials for carbon dioxide capture. Energy, 2017, 124: 461–480
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.02.053
4 S Triantafyllidis, R J Ries, K K Kaplanidou. Carbon dioxide emissions of spectators’ transportation in collegiate sporting events: cmparing on-campus and off-campus stadium locations. Sustainability, 2018, 10(1): 241
https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010241
5 US Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of US greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2014. Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency, 2016
6 B Sreenivasulu, D V Gayatri, I Sreedhar, K V Raghavan. A journey into the process and engineering aspects of carbon capture technologies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015, 41: 1324–1350
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.029
7 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate. Climate Cange 2014: Migation of Cimate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015
8 P Berry, Y Ogawa-Onishi, A McVey. The vulnerability of threatened species: adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity. Biology (Basel), 2013, 2(3): 872–893
https://doi.org/10.3390/biology2030872
9 A M Abdalla, S Hossain, P M Petra, M Ghasemi, A K Azad . Achievements and trends of solid oxide fuel cells in clean energy field: a perspective review. Frontiers in Energy, 2018,
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0546-2
10 International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook 2017. Paris. France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017
11 P Parthasarathy, K S Narayanan. Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass: influence of process parameters on hydrogen yield—a review. Renewable Energy, 2014, 66: 570–579
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.12.025
12 C M Kalamaras, A M Efstathiou. Hydrogen production technologies: current state and future developments. Conference Papers in Energy. London. UK: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013
https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/690627
13 T Riis, E F Hagen, P J Vie, Ø Ulleberg. Hydrogen production and storage-R&D: priorities and gaps. IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2006
14 P E Dodds, I Staffell, A D Hawkes, F Li, P Grünewald, W McDowall, P Ekins. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for heating: a review. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(5): 2065–2083
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.11.059
15 A Pei, L Zhang, B Jiang, L Guo, X Zhang, Y Lv, H Jin. Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical or subcritical water with raney-Ni and other catalysts. Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China, 2009, 3(4): 456–464
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-009-0069-y
16 P H Moud, E Kantarelis, K J Andersson, K Engvall. Biomass pyrolysis gas conditioning over an iron-based catalyst for mild deoxygenation and hydrogen production. Fuel, 2018, 211: 149–158
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.09.062
17 S Sumrunronnasak, S Tantayanon, S Kiatgamolchai, T Sukonket. Improved hydrogen production from dry reforming reaction using a catalytic packed-bed membrane reactor with Ni-based catalyst and dense pdagcu alloy membrane. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(4): 2621–2630
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.10.129
18 S E Hosseini, M A Wahid, A Ganjehkaviri. An overview of renewable hydrogen production from thermochemical process of oil palm solid waste in Malaysia. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 94: 415–429
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.02.012
19 R Bhattacharyya, K Sandeep, S Kamath, K Mistry. Hydrogen from alkaline water electrolysis: a case study on process economics of decentralized production in the present indian scenario. Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering, 2018, 4(3): 1–17
https://doi.org/10.37591/etce.v4i3.82
20 M Y Lin, L W Hourng, S H Huang, T H Tsai, W N Hsu. Analysis and study on polarization during water electrolysis hydrogen production. Chemical Engineering Communications, 2017, 204(2): 168–175
https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2016.1250079
21 X Gu, S Yuan, M Ma, J Zhu. Nanoenhanced materials for photolytic hydrogen production. Nanotechnology for Energy Sustainability, 2017: 629–648
https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527696109.ch2
22 K H Chu, L Ye, W Wang, D Wu, D K L Chan, C Zeng, H Y Yip. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous sulfide/sulfite solution by ZnO0.6S0.4 with simultaneous dye degradation under visible-light irradiation. Chemosphere, 2017, 47: 9873–9880
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.112
23 J D Jacobs. Economic modeling of cost effective hydrogen production from water electrolysis by utilizing Iceland’s regulatory power market. Dissertation for the Degree of Master of Science. Iceland: Reykjavik University, 2016
24 M Artetxe, J Alvarez, M A Nahil, M Olazar, P T Williams. Steam reforming of different biomass tar model compounds over Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 136: 119–126
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.092
25 V Chiodo, F Urbani, G Zafarana, M Prestipino, A Galvagno, S Maisano. Syngas production by catalytic steam gasification of citrus residues. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(46): 28048–28055
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.08.085
26 A Molino, S Chianese, D Musmarra. Biomass gasification technology: the state of the art overview. Journal of Energy Chemistry, 2016, 25(1): 10–25
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2015.11.005
27 S E Hosseini, M A Wahid. Hydrogen production from renewable and sustainable energy resources: promising green energy carrier for clean development. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 57: 850–866
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.112
28 J Hernández, R Ballesteros, G Aranda. Characterisation of tars from biomass gasification: effect of the operating conditions. Energy, 2013, 50: 333–342
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.12.005
29 R Singh, S Singh, J Balwanshi. Tar removal from producer gas: a review. Research Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2014, 3: 16–22
30 M L Valderrama Rios, A M González, E E S Lora, O A Almazán del Olmo. Reduction of tar generated during biomass gasification: a review. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2018, 108: 345–370
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.12.002
31 M Artetxe, M A Nahil, M Olazar, P T Williams. Steam reforming of phenol as biomass tar model compound over Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. Fuel, 2016, 184: 629–636
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.036
32 S J Yoon, Y C Choi, J G Lee. Hydrogen production from biomass tar by catalytic steam reforming. Energy Conversion and Management, 2010, 51(1): 42–47
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.08.017
33 S Nakamura, S Kitano, K Yoshikawa. Biomass gasification process with the tar removal technologies utilizing bio-oil scrubber and char bed. Applied Energy, 2016, 170: 186–192
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.113
34 S Osipovs, A Pučkins. Choice the filter for tar removal from syngas. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Scientific and Practical Conference, Rezekne: Rezekne Academy of Technologies, 2017, 211–215
35 Y K Choi, J H Ko, J S Kim. Gasification of dried sewage sludge using an innovative three-stage gasifier: clean and H2-rich gas production using condensers as the only secondary tar removal apparatus. Fuel, 2018, 216: 810–817
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.068
36 P J Woolcock, R C Brown. A review of cleaning technologies for biomass-derived syngas. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2013, 52: 54–84
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.02.036
37 A Ersoz, H Olgun, S Ozdogan. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for pem fuel cells. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 154(1): 67–73
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.02.092
38 K McGlocklin. Economic analysis of various reforming techniques and fuel sources for hydrogen production. Dissertation for the Degree of Master of Science. Auburn: Auburn University, 2006
39 D B Myers, G D Ariff, B D James, J S Lettow, C E Thomas, R C Kuhn. Cost and performance comparison of stationary hydrogen fueling appliances. In: Proceedings of the 2002 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review, Arlington: Directed Technologies, 2002
40 O Forsberg. Catalytic tar reforming in biomass gasification: tungsten bronzes and the effect of gas alkali during tar steam reforming. Dissertation for the Master Degree. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014
41 K Qian, A Kumar. Catalytic reforming of toluene and naphthalene (model tar) by char supported nickel catalyst. Fuel, 2017, 187: 128–136
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.09.043
42 J Meng, Z Zhao, X Wang, X Wu, A Zheng, Z Huang, K Zhao, H Li. Effects of catalyst preparation parameters and reaction operating conditions on the activity and stability of thermally fused Fe-olivine catalyst in the steam reforming of toluene. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43(1): 127–138
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.11.037
43 K Takise, S Manabe, K Muraguchi, T Higo, S Ogo, Y Sekine. Anchoring effect and oxygen redox property of Co/La0.7Sr0.3AlO3–d perovskite catalyst on toluene steam reforming reaction. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2017, 538: 181–189
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2017.03.026
44 T P de Castro, E B Silveira, R C Rabelo-Neto, L E P Borges, F B Noronha. Study of the performance of Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/CeO2/Al2 catalysts for steam reforming of toluene, methane and mixtures. Catalysis Today, 2018, 299: 251–262
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2017.05.067
45 G Oh, S Y Park, M W Seo, Y K Kim, H W Ra, J G Lee, S J Yoon. Ni/Ru–Mn/Al2O3 catalysts for steam reforming of toluene as model biomass tar. Renewable Energy, 2016, 86: 841–847
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.09.013
46 J Chen, M Tamura, Y Nakagawa, K Okumura, K Tomishige. Promoting effect of trace Pd on hydrotalcite-derived Ni/Mg/Al catalyst in oxidative steam reforming of biomass tar. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2015, 179: 412–421
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.05.042
47 X Zhao, Y Xue, Z Lu, Y Huang, C Guo, C Yan. Encapsulating Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 with SiO2 layer to improve it catalytic activity for steam reforming of toluene. Catalysis Communications, 2017, 101: 138–141
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2017.08.013
48 D H Heo, R Lee, J H Hwang, J M Sohn. The effect of addition of Ca, K and Mn over Ni-based catalyst on steam reforming of toluene as model tar compound. Catalysis Today, 2016, 265: 95–102
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2015.09.057
49 X Zou, T Chen, P Zhang, D Chen, J He, Y Dang, Z Ma, Y Chen, P Toloueinia, C Zhu, J Xie, H Liu, S L Suib. High catalytic performance of Fe-Ni/palygorskite in the steam reforming of toluene for hydrogen production. Applied Energy, 2018, 226: 827–837
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.005
50 J Ben-Iwo, V Manovic, P Longhurst. Biomass resources and biofuels potential for the production of transportation fuels in nigeria. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 63: 172–192
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.050
51 Y Feng, B Xiao, K Goerner, G Cheng, J Wang. Influence of catalyst and temperature on gasification performance by externally heated gasifier. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2011, 2(03): 177–183
https://doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2011.23021
52 A Kumar, D D Jones, M A Hanna. Thermochemical biomass gasification: a review of the current status of the technology. Energies, 2009, 2(3): 556–581
https://doi.org/10.3390/en20300556
53 C Li, K Suzuki. Tar property, analysis, reforming mechanism and model for biomass gasification—an overview. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2009, 13(3): 594–604
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.01.009
54 G Guan, X Hao, A Abudula. Heterogeneous catalysts from natural sources for tar removal: a mini review. Journal of Advanced Catalysis Science and Technology, 2014, 1(1): 20–28
https://doi.org/10.15379/2408-9834.2014.01.01.4
55 H Yu, Z Zhang, Z Li, D Chen. Characteristics of tar formation during cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin gasification. Fuel, 2014, 118: 250–256
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.10.080
56 J J Marano. Benchmarking biomass gasification technologies for fuels, chemicals and hydrogen production. US: National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2002
57 T G Etutu, K Laohalidanond, S Kerdsuwan. Gasification of municipal solid waste in a downdraft gasifier: analysis of tar formation. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, 38(2): 221–228
58 C Berrueco, D Montané, B Matas Güell, G del Alamo. Effect of temperature and dolomite on tar formation during gasification of torrefied biomass in a pressurized fluidized bed. Energy, 2014, 66: 849–859
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.12.035
59 A Erkiaga, G Lopez, M Amutio, J Bilbao, M Olazar. Influence of operating conditions on the steam gasification of biomass in a conical spouted bed reactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2014, 237: 259–267
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.10.018
60 Y H Qin, J Feng, W Y Li. Formation of tar and its characterization during air-steam gasification of sawdust in a fluidized bed reactor. Fuel, 2010, 89(7): 1344–1347
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.08.009
61 A Klein, N J Themelis. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes by gasification. In: 11th North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, Tampa: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003, 241–252
62 Y Shen, K Yoshikawa. Recent progresses in catalytic tar elimination during biomass gasification or pyrolysis—a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013, 21: 371–392
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.062
63 A Di Carlo, D Borello, M Sisinni, E Savuto, P Venturini, E Bocci, K Kuramoto. Reforming of tar contained in a raw fuel gas from biomass gasification using nickel-mayenite catalyst. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(30): 9088–9095
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.05.128
64 U Wolfesberger, I Aigner, H Hofbauer. Tar content and composition in producer gas of fluidized bed gasification of wood-influence of temperature and pressure. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 2009, 28(3): 372–379
https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10387
65 V Nemanova, T Nordgreen, K Sjostrom. Green methane from biomass gasification: final report. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010
66 T Riis, E F Hagen, P J Vie, Ø Ulleberg. Hydrogen production–gaps and priorities. IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, 2006
67 S A Ghoneim, R A El-Salamony, S A El-Temtamy. Review on innovative catalytic reforming of natural gas to syngas. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2016, 4(01): 116–139
https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2016.41011
68 M E Obonukut, S B Alabi, P G Bassey. Steam reforming of natural gas: a value addition to natural gas utilization in Nigeria. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 2016, 1: 28–41
69 R Coll, J Salvado, X Farriol, D Montané. Steam reforming model compounds of biomass gasification tars: conversion at different operating conditions and tendency towards coke formation. Fuel Processing Technology, 2001, 74(1): 19–31
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3820(01)00214-4
70 G Guan, M Kaewpanha, X Hao, A Abudula. Catalytic steam reforming of biomass tar: prospects and challenges. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 58: 450–461
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.316
71 N Laosiripojana, W Sutthisripok, S Charojrochkul, S Assabumrungrat. Development of Ni-Fe bimetallic based catalysts for biomass tar cracking/reforming: effects of catalyst support and Co-fed reactants on tar conversion characteristics. Fuel Processing Technology, 2014, 127: 26–32
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.06.015
72 J A Rached, C El Hayek, E Dahdah, C Genneqiun, S Aouad, H L Tidahy, J Estephane, B Nsouli, A Aboukaïs, E Abi-Aad . Ni based catalysts promoted with cerium used in the steam reforming of toluene for hydrogen production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 42: 12829–12840
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.10.053
73 E Silveira, R Rabelo-Neto, F Noronha. Steam reforming of toluene, methane and mixtures over Ni/ZrO2 catalysts. Catalysis Today, 2017, 289: 289–301
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2016.08.024
74 F M Josuinkas, C P Quitete, N F Ribeiro, M M V M Souza. Steam reforming of model gasification tar compounds over nickel catalysts prepared from hydrotalcite precursors. Fuel Processing Technology, 2014, 121: 76–82
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.007
75 J Ashok, S Kawi. Steam reforming of toluene as a biomass tar model compound over CeO2 promoted Ni/CaO-Al2O3 catalytic systems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38(32): 13938–13949
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.08.029
76 S Chitsazan, S Sepehri, G Garbarino, M M Carnasciali, G Busca. Steam reforming of biomass-derived organics: interactions of different mixture components on Ni/Al2O3 based catalysts. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2016, 187: 386–398
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.01.050
77 J Sehested, N W Larsen, H Falsig, B Hinnemann. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts: effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH at nickel surfaces. Catalysis Today, 2014, 228: 22–31
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2014.01.009
78 J Sehested. Four challenges for nickel steam-reforming catalysts. Catalysis Today, 2006, 111(1–2): 103–110
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2005.10.002
79 S Vivanpatarakij, D Rulerk, S Assabumrungrat. Removal of tar from biomass gasification process by steam reforming over nickel catalysts. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2014, 37: 205–210
80 L An, C Dong, Y Yang, J Zhang, L He. The influence of Ni loading on coke formation in steam reforming of acetic acid. Renewable Energy, 2011, 36(3): 930–935
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.08.029
81 R Wojcieszak, M Zieliński, S Monteverdi, M M Bettahar. Study of nickel nanoparticles supported on activated carbon prepared by aqueous hydrazine reduction. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, 299(1): 238–248
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.01.067
82 H J Park, S H Park, J M Sohn, J Park, J K Jeon, S S Kim, Y K Park. Steam reforming of biomass gasification tar using benzene as a model compound over various Ni supported metal oxide catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 2010, 101(1): S101–S103
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.036
83 H W Kim, K M Kang, H Y Kwak. Preparation of supported ni catalysts with a core/shell structure and their catalytic tests of partial oxidation of methane. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2009, 34(8): 3351–3359
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.02.036
84 M Kaewpanha, S Karnjanakom, G Guan, X Hao, J Yang, A Abudula. Removal of biomass tar by steam reforming over calcined scallop shell supported Cu catalysts. Journal of Energy Chemistry, 2017, 26(4): 660–666
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2017.03.012
85 X Y Zhao, Y P Xue, C F Yan, Z Wang, C Guo, S Huang. Sorbent assisted catalyst of Ni-CaO-La2O3 for sorption enhanced steam reforming of bio-oil with acetic acid as the model compound. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 2017, 119: 106–112
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2017.05.012
86 M Sisinni, A Di Carlo, E Bocci, A Micangeli, V Naso. Hydrogen-rich gas production by sorption enhanced steam reforming of woodgas containing tar over a commercial ni catalyst and calcined dolomite as CO2 sorbent. Energies, 2013, 6(7): 3167–3181
https://doi.org/10.3390/en6073167
87 H Iida, K Noguchi, T Numa, A Igarashi, K Okumura. Ru/12SrO–7Al2O3 (S12A7) catalyst prepared by physical mixing with Ru(PPh3)3Cl2 for steam reforming of toluene. Catalysis Communications, 2015, 72: 101–104
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2015.09.018
88 T R Reina, S Ivanova, O Laguna, M A Centeno, J A Odriozola. WGS and CO-PrOx reactions using gold promoted copper-ceria catalysts: bulk CuOCeO2 vs. CuOCeO2/Al2O3 with low mixed oxide content. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2016, 197: 62–72
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.03.022
89 T R Reina, S Ivanova, J J Delgado, I Ivanov. Viability of Au/CeO2–ZnO/Al2O catalysts for pure hydrogen production by the water-gas shift reaction. ChemCatChem, 2014, 6(5): 1401–1409
90 H P Zhou, H S Wu, J Shen, A X Yin, L D Sun, C H Yan. Thermally stable Pt/CeO2 hetero-nanocomposites with high catalytic activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2010, 132(14): 4998–4999
https://doi.org/10.1021/ja101110m
91 F H Lin, R A Doong. Catalytic nanoreactors of Au@Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures with various Au sizes for efficient nitroarene reduction. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2017, 121(14): 7844–7853
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b00130
92 P Nan Beurden. On the catalytic aspects of steam-methane reforming. Report No.: I-04–003. Petten: Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, 2004
93 F Bossola, X I Pereira-Hernández, C Evangelisti, Y Wang, V Dal Santo. Investigation of the promoting effect of mn on a Pt/C catalyst for the steam and aqueous phase reforming of glycerol. Journal of Catalysis, 2017, 349: 75–83
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2017.03.002
94 J H Jeong, J W Lee, D J Seo, Y Seo, W L Yoon, D K Lee, D H Kim. Ru-doped ni catalysts effective for the steam reforming of methane without the pre-reduction treatment with H2. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2006, 302(2): 151–156
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2005.12.007
95 C Xie, Y Chen, M H Engelhard, C Song. Comparative study on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuel. ACS Catalysis, 2012, 2(6): 1127–1137
https://doi.org/10.1021/cs200695t
96 H Zhou, T Zhang, Z Sui, Y A Zhu, C Han, K Zhu, X Zhou. A single source method to generate Ru-Ni-MgO catalysts for methane dry reforming and the kinetic effect of Ru on carbon deposition and gasification. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2018, 233: 143–159
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.03.103
97 T Higo, H Saito, S Ogo, Y Sugiura, Y Sekine. Promotive effect of ba addition on the catalytic performance of Ni/LaAlO3 catalysts for steam reforming of toluene. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2017, 530: 125–131
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2016.11.026
98 U Oemar, M L Ang, W F Hee, K Hidajat, S Kawi. Perovskite LaxM1−xNi0.8Fe0.2O3 catalyst for steam reforming of toluene: crucial role of alkaline earth metal at low steam condition. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2014, 148–149: 231–242
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.10.001
99 S Kang, B Sub Kwak, M Kang. Synthesis of ni-alkaline earth metals particles encapsulated by porous SiO2 (NiMO@SiO2)and their catalytic performances on ethanol steam reforming. Ceramics International, 2014, 40(9): 14197–14206
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.06.008
100 K Yin, S Mahamulkar, J Xie, H Shibata, A Malek, L Li, C W Jones, P Agrawal, R J Davis. Catalytic reactions of coke with dioxygen and steam over alkaline-earth-metal-doped cerium-zirconium mixed oxides. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2017, 535: 17–23
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2017.02.002
101 L Yang, Y Choi, W Qin, H Chen, K Blinn, M Liu, P Liu, J Bai, T A Tyson, M Liu. Promotion of water-mediated carbon removal by nanostructured barium oxide/nickel interfaces in solid oxide fuel cells. Nature Communications, 2011, 2(1): 357
https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1359
102 S Hu, L He, Y Wang, S Su, L Jiang, Q Chen, Q Liu, H Chi, J Xiang, L Sun. Effects of oxygen species from Fe addition on promoting steam reforming of toluene over Fe–Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(40): 17967–17975
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.271
103 S Karnjanakom, G Guan, B Asep, X Du, X Hao, C Samart, A Abudula. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 98: 359–368
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.04.007
104 A H Dam. Bimetallic catalyst system for steam reforming. Dissertaion for the Doctorial Degree. Norway: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2015
105 D Li, M Lu, K Aragaki, M Koike, Y Nakagawa, K Tomishige. Characterization and catalytic performance of hydrotalcite-derived Ni-Cu alloy nanoparticles catalysts for steam reforming of 1-methylnaphthalene. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2016, 192: 171–181
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.03.052
106 X You, X Wang, Y Ma, J Liu, W Liu, X Xu, H Peng, C Li, W Zhou, P Yuan, X Chen. Ni-Co/Al2O3 bimetallic catalysts for CH4 steam reforming: elucidating the role of Co for improving coke resistance. ChemCatChem, 2014, 6(12): 3377–3386
https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201402695
107 Y Yoon, H Kim, J Lee. Enhanced catalytic behavior of Ni alloys in steam methane reforming. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, 359: 450–457
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.05.076
108 T Ahmed, S Xiu, L Wang, A Shahbazi. Investigation of Ni/Fe/Mg zeolite-supported catalysts in steam reforming of tar using simulated-toluene as model compound. Fuel, 2018, 211: 566–571
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.09.051
109 M Koike, D Li, H Watanabe, Y Nakagawa, K Tomishige. Comparative study on steam reforming of model aromatic compounds of biomass tar over Ni and Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2015, 506: 151–162
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2015.09.007
110 D Li, M Koike, L Wang, Y Nakagawa, Y Xu, K Tomishige. Regenerability of hydrotalcite-derived nickel–iron alloy nanoparticles for syngas production from biomass tar. ChemSusChem, 2014, 7(2): 510–522
https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201300855
111 D Mukai, Y Murai, T Higo, S Ogo, Y Sugiura, Y Sekine. Effect of Pt addition to Ni/La0.7Sr0.3AlO3−d catalyst on steam reforming of toluene for hydrogen production. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2014, 471: 157–164
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2013.11.032
112 N Parizotto, D Zanchet, K Rocha, C M P Marques, J M C Bueno. The effects of Pt promotion on the oxi-reduction properties of alumina supported nickel catalysts for oxidative steam-reforming of methane: temperature-resolved XAFS analysis. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2009, 366(1): 122–129
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2009.06.039
113 T S Moraes, R C Rabelo Neto, M C Ribeiro, L V Mattos, M Kourtelesis, S Ladas, X Verykios, F B Noronha. Ethanol conversion at low temperature over CeO2-supported Ni-based catalysts. Effect of Pt addition to Ni catalyst. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2016, 181: 754–768
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.08.044
114 M Nurunnabi, K I Fujimoto, K Suzuki, B Li, S Kado, K Kunimori, K Tomishige. Promoting effect of noble metals addition on activity and resistance to carbon deposition in oxidative steam reforming of methane over NiO-MgO solid solution. Catalysis Communications, 2006, 7(2): 73–78
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2005.09.002
115 V K Jaiswar, S Katheria, G Deo, D Kunzru. Effect of Pt doping on activity and stability of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst for steam reforming of methane at ambient and high pressure condition. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(30): 18968–18976
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.06.096
116 M García-Diéguez, I S Pieta, M C Herrera, M A Larrubia, L J Alemany. Nanostructured Pt- and Ni-based catalysts for CO2-reforming of methane. Journal of Catalysis, 2010, 270(1): 136–145
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2009.12.010
117 W Nabgan, T A Tuan Abdullah, R Mat, B Nabgan, Y Gambo, S Triwahyono. Influence of Ni to Co ratio supported on ZrO2 catalysts in phenol steam reforming for hydrogen production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(48): 22922–22931
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.10.055
118 N Luo, K Ouyang, F Cao, T Xiao. Hydrogen generation from liquid reforming of glycerin over Ni-Co bimetallic catalyst. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2010, 34(4): 489–495
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.12.013
119 X Zhang, C Yang, Y Zhang, Y Xu, S Shang, Y Yin. Ni–Co catalyst derived from layered double hydroxides for dry reforming of methane. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(46): 16115–16126
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.09.150
120 J P Cao, J Ren, X Y Zhao, X Y Wei, T Takarada. Effect of atmosphere on carbon deposition of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-loaded on lignite char during reforming of toluene as a biomass tar model compound. Fuel, 2018, 217: 515–521
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.121
121 S Y Park, G Oh, K Kim, M W Seo, H W Ra, T Y Mun, J G Lee, S J Yoon. Deactivation characteristics of Ni and Ru catalysts in tar steam reforming. Renewable Energy, 2017, 105: 76–83
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.12.045
122 X Liu, X Yang, C Liu, P Chen, X Yue, S Zhang. Low-temperature catalytic steam reforming of toluene over activated carbon supported nickel catalysts. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2016, 65: 233–241
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2016.05.006
123 B Valle, B Aramburu, A Remiro, J Bilbao, A G Gayubo. Effect of calcination/reduction conditions of Ni/La2O3-αAl2O3 catalyst on its activity and stability for hydrogen production by steam reforming of raw bio-oil/ethanol. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2014, 147: 402–410
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.09.022
124 Z Boukha, C Jiménez-González, B de Rivas, J R González-Velasco, J I Gutiárrez-Ortiz, R López-Fonseca. Synthesis, characterisation and performance evaluation of spinel-derived Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for various methane reforming reactions. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2014, 158–159: 190–201
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.04.014
125 J Meng, X Wang, Z Zhao, X Wu, A Zheng, G Wei, Z Huang, H Li. A highly carbon-resistant olivine thermally fused with metallic nickel catalyst for steam reforming of biomass tar model compound. RSC Advances, 2017, 7(62): 39160–39171
https://doi.org/10.1039/C7RA06219B
126 D C Cárdenas-Espinosa, J C Vargas. Influence of the preparation conditions of Ca doped Ni/olivine catalysts on the improvement of gas quality produced by biomass gasification. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 2010, 175: 385–388
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2991(10)75066-7
127 C Courson, L Udron, D Świerczyński, A Kiennemann . Hydrogen production from biomass gasification on nickel catalysts: tests for dry reforming of methane. Catalysis Today, 2002, 76(1): 75–86
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5861(02)00202-X
128 D Cui, J Liu, J Yu, J Yue, F Su, G Xu. Necessity of moderate metal-support interaction in Ni/Al2O3 for syngas methanation at high temperatures. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(14): 10187–10196
https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA14652B
129 D Pandey, G Deo. Effect of support on the catalytic activity of supported Ni-Fe catalysts for the CO2 methanation reaction. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2016, 33: 99–107
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.09.019
130 J A Villoria, N Mota, S Al-Sayari, M C Alvarez-Galvan, R M Navarro, J Luis Garcia Fierro. Perovskites as catalysts in the reforming of hydrocarbons: a review. Micro and Nanosystems, 2012, 4(3): 231–252
https://doi.org/10.2174/1876402911204030231
131 J Lian, X Fang, W Liu, Q Huang, Q Sun, H Wang, X Wang, W Zhou. Ni supported on LaFeO3 perovskites for methane steam reforming: on the promotional effects of plasma treatment in H2-Ar atmosphere. Topics in Catalysis, 2017, 60(12–14): 831–842
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11244-017-0748-6
132 D Aman, D Radwan, M Ebaid, S Mikhail, E van Steen. Comparing nickel and cobalt perovskites for steam reforming of glycerol. Molecular Catalysis, 2018, 452: 60–67
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcat.2018.03.022
133 C P Quitete, R L Manfro, M M Souza. Perovskite-based catalysts for tar removal by steam reforming: effect of the presence of hydrogen sulfide. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(15): 9873–9880
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.02.187
134 S Rapagná, H Provendier, C Petit, A Kiennemann, P U Foscolo. Development of catalysts suitable for hydrogen or syn-gas production from biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2002, 22(5): 377–388
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00011-9
135 U Oemar, P S Ang, K Hidajat, S Kawi. Promotional effect of Fe on perovskite LaNixFe1−xO3 catalyst for hydrogen production via steam reforming of toluene. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38(14): 5525–5534
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.02.083
136 Y Qi, Z Cheng, Z Zhou. Steam reforming of methane over ni catalysts prepared from hydrotalcite-type precursors: catalytic activity and reaction kinetics. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, 23(1): 76–85
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2013.11.002
137 T Noor. Sorption enhanced high temperature water gas shift reaction: materials and catalysis. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2013
138 G Mitran, D G Mieritz, D K Seo. Hydrotalcites with vanadium, effective catalysts for steam reforming of toluene. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(34): 21732–21740
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.07.097
139 D Nguyen-Thanh, A M Duarte de Farias, M A Fraga. Characterization and activity of vanadia-promoted Pt/ZrO2 catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction. Catalysis Today, 2008, 138(3–4): 235–238
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2008.05.036
140 N Ballarini, A Battisti, F Cavani, A Cericola, C Lucarelli, S Racioppi, P Arpentinier. The oxygen-assisted transformation of propane to COx/H2 through combined oxidation and wgs reactions catalyzed by vanadium oxide-based catalysts. Catalysis Today, 2006, 116(3): 313–323
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2006.05.076
141 T M Kokumai, D A Cantane, G T Melo, L B Paulucci, D Zanchet. VOx-Pt/Al2O3 catalysts for hydrogen production. Catalysis Today, 2017, 289: 249–257
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2016.09.021
142 N Labhasetwar, G Saravanan, S Kumar Megarajan, N Manwar, R Khobragade, P Doggali, F Grasset. Perovskite-type catalytic materials for environmental applications. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2015, 16(3): 036002
https://doi.org/10.1088/1468-6996/16/3/036002
143 B Yousaf. Hydrotalcite based ni-co bi-metallic catalysts for steam reforming of methane. NTNU, 2016
144 T Higo, T Hashimoto, D Mukai, S Nagatake, S Ogo, Y Sugiura, Y Sekine. Effect of hydrocarbon structure on steam reforming over Ni/perovskite catalyst. Journal of the Japan Petroleum Institute, 2015, 58(2): 86–96
https://doi.org/10.1627/jpi.58.86
145 A Zarei Senseni, S M Seyed Fattahi, M Rezaei, F Meshkani. A comparative study of experimental investigation and response surface optimization of steam reforming of glycerol over nickel nano-catalysts. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(24): 10178–10192
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.05.047
146 M V Gil, J Fermoso, F Rubiera, D Chen. H2 production by sorption enhanced steam reforming of biomass-derived bio-oil in a fluidized bed reactor: an assessment of the effect of operation variables using response surface methodology. Catalysis Today, 2015, 242: 19–34
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2014.04.018
147 C Huang, C Xu, B Wang, X Hu, J Li, J Liu, J Liu, C Li. High production of syngas from catalytic steam reforming of biomass glycerol in the presence of methane. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2018, 119: 173–178
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.05.006
148 C Zhang, X Hu, Z Yu, Zhang Z, Chen G, Li C, Liu Q, Xiang J, Wang Y, Hu S. Steam reforming of acetic acid for hydrogen production over attapulgite and alumina supported Ni catalysts: impacts of properties of supports on catalytic behaviors. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, 44(11): 5230–5244
149 A Jess. Catalytic upgrading of tarry fuel gases: a kinetic study with model components. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 1996, 35(6): 487–494
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0255-2701(96)04160-8
150 C P Quitete, M M Souza. Application of brazilian dolomites and mixed oxides as catalysts in tar removal system. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2017, 536: 1–8
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2017.02.014
151 K K Pant, R Jain, S Jain. Renewable hydrogen production by steam reforming of glycerol over Ni/CeO2 catalyst prepared by precipitation deposition method. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2011, 28(9): 1859–1866
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-011-0059-8
152 T Kimura, T Miyazawa, J Nishikawa, S Kado, K Okumura, T Miyao, S Naito, K Kunimori, K Tomishige. Development of Ni catalysts for tar removal by steam gasification of biomass. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2006, 68(3–4): 160–170
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.08.007
153 J Jeon, S Nam, C H Ko. Rapid evaluation of coke resistance in catalysts for methane reforming using low steam-to-carbon ratio. Catalysis Today, 2018, 309: 140–146
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2017.08.051
154 Q Li, Q Wang, A Kayamori, J Zhang. Experimental study and modeling of heavy tar steam reforming. Fuel Processing Technology, 2018, 178: 180–188
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.05.020
155 J Tao, L Zhao, C Dong, Q Lu, X Du, E Dahlquist. Catalytic steam reforming of toluene as a model compound of biomass gasification tar using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Energies, 2013, 6(7): 3284–3296
https://doi.org/10.3390/en6073284
156 N Gao, X Wang, A Li, C Wu, Z Yin. Hydrogen production from catalytic steam reforming of benzene as tar model compound of biomass gasification. Fuel Processing Technology, 2016, 148: 380–387
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.03.019
157 N Gao, S Liu, Y Han, C Xing, A Li. Steam reforming of biomass tar for hydrogen production over NiO/ceramic foam catalyst. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(25): 7983–7990
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.04.050
158 R Zhang, H Wang, X Hou. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst. Chemosphere, 2014, 97: 40–46
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.087
159 T Liang, Y Wang, M Chen, Z Yang, S Liu, Z Zhou, X Li. Steam reforming of phenol-ethanol to produce hydrogen over bimetallic NiCu catalysts supported on sepiolite. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(47): 28233–28246
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.134
160 C Italiano, N T J Luchters, L Pino, J V Fletcher, S Specchia, J C Q Fletcher, A Vita. High specific surface area supports for highly active Rh catalysts: syngas production from methane at high space velocity. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43(26): 11755–11765
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.01.136
161 M Compagnoni, A Tripodi, I Rossetti. Parametric study and kinetic testing for ethanol steam reforming. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2017, 203: 899–909
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.11.002
162 D Pashchenko. Numerical study of steam methane reforming over a pre-heated Ni-based catalyst with detailed fluid dynamics. Fuel, 2019, 236: 686–694
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.09.033
163 S Kim, D Chun, Y Rhim, J Lim, S Kim, H Choi, S Lee, J Yoo. Catalytic reforming of toluene using a nickel ion-exchanged coal catalyst. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40(35): 11855–11862
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.06.103
164 G Chen, J Tao, C Liu, B Yan, W Li, X Li. Hydrogen production via acetic acid steam reforming: a critical review on catalysts. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 79: 1091–1098
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.107
165 J P Lange. Catalysis for biorefineries-performance criteria for industrial operation. Catalysis Science & Technology, 2016, 6(13): 4759–4767
https://doi.org/10.1039/C6CY00431H
166 S M Hashemnejad, M Parvari. Deactivation and regeneration of nickel-based catalysts for steam-methane reforming. Chinese Journal of Catalysis, 2011, 32(1–2): 273–279
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2067(10)60175-1
167 M Argyle, C Bartholomew. Heterogeneous catalyst deactivation and regeneration: a review. Catalysts, 2015, 5(1): 145–269
https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010145
168 D L Trimm. Catalysts for the control of coking during steam reforming. Catalysis Today, 1999, 49(1–3): 3–10
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5861(98)00401-5
169 Y Kathiraser, J Ashok, S Kawi. Synthesis and evaluation of highly dispersed SBA-15 supported Ni-Fe bimetallic catalysts for steam reforming of biomass derived tar reaction. Catalysis Science & Technology, 2016, 6(12): 4327–4336
https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CY01910A
170 H Iida, A Fujiyama, A Igarashi, K Okumura. Steam reforming of toluene over Ru/SrCo3-Al2O3 catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology, 2017, 168: 50–57
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.08.032
171 U Oemar, M L Ang, K Hidajat, S Kawi. Enhancing performance of Ni/La2O3 catalyst by Sr-modification for steam reforming of toluene as model compound of biomass tar. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(23): 17834–17842
https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA16983B
172 M Broda, A M Kierzkowska, C R Müller. Sorbent-enhanced steam methane reforming reaction studied over a Ca-based CO2 sorbent and Ni catalyst. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 2013, 36(9): 1496–1502
https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201200643
173 C P Quitete, R C P Bittencourt, M M Souza. Steam reforming of tar using toluene as a model compound with nickel catalysts supported on hexaaluminates. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2014, 478: 234–240
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2014.04.019
174 X Dou, A Veksha, W P Chan, W D Oh, Y N Liang, F Teoh, D K B Mohamed, A Giannis, G Lisak, T T Lim. Poisoning effect of H2S and HCl on the naphthalene steam reforming and water-gas shift activities of Ni and Fe catalysts. Fuel, 2019, 241: 1008–1018
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.12.119
175 J Ashok, S Das, N Dewangan, kawi S. H2S and NOx tolerance capability of CeO2 doped La1−xCe2Co0.5Ti0.5O3–δ perovskites for steam reforming of biomass tar model reaction. Energy Conversion and Management: X, 2019, 1: 100003
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecmx.2019.100003
176 A Veksha, A Giannis, W D Oh, V W C Chang, G Lisak, T T Lim. Catalytic activities and resistance to HCl poisoning of Ni-based catalysts during steam reforming of naphthalene. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2018, 557: 25–38
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2018.03.005
177 C C Xu, J Donald, E Byambajav, Y Ohtsuka. Recent advances in catalysts for hot-gas removal of tar and NH3 from biomass gasification. Fuel, 2010, 89(8): 1784–1795
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.02.014
178 M Stemmler, M Müller. Chemical hot gas cleaning concept for the “chrisgas” process. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2011, 35: S105–S115
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.03.044
179 W Torres, S S Pansare, J G Goodwin Jr. Hot gas removal of tars, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from biomass gasification gas. Catalysis Reviews, 2007, 49(4): 407–456
https://doi.org/10.1080/01614940701375134
180 G Garbarino, A Lagazzo, P Riani, G Busca. Steam reforming of ethanol–phenol mixture on Ni/Al2O3: effect of Ni loading and sulphur deactivation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2013, 129: 460–472
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.09.036
181 C Zuber, C Hochenauer, T Kienberger. Test of a hydrodesulfurization catalyst in a biomass tar removal process with catalytic steam reforming. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2014, 156–157: 62–71
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.03.005
182 C Li, D Hirabayashi, K Suzuki. A crucial role of O2− and O22− on mayenite structure for biomass tar steam reforming over Ni/Ca12Al14O33. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2009, 88(3–4): 351–360
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.11.004
183 E Savuto, R Navarro, N Mota, A Di Carlo, E Bocci, M Carlini, J L G Fierro. Steam reforming of tar model compounds over Ni/mayenite catalysts: effect of Ce addition. Fuel, 2018, 224: 676–686
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.03.081
184 J R Mawdsley, T R Krause. Rare earth-first-row transition metal perovskites as catalysts for the autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to generate hydrogen. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2008, 334(1–2): 311–320
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2007.10.018
185 J Hepola, P Simell. Sulphur poisoning of nickel-based hot gas cleaning catalysts in synthetic gasification gas: I. Effect of different process parameters. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 1997, 14(3–4): 287–303
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-3373(97)00031-3
186 K S Avasthi, R N Reddy, S Patel. Challenges in the production of hydrogen from glycerol-a biodiesel byproduct via steam reforming process. Procedia Engineering, 2013, 51: 423–429
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.01.059
187 C A Schwengber, H J Alves, R A Schaffner, F A da Silva, R Sequinel, V R Bach, R J Ferracin. Overview of glycerol reforming for hydrogen production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 58: 259–266
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.279
188 D Chapin, S Kiffer, J Nestell. The very high temperature reactor: a technical summary. Alexandria. VA: MPR Associates Inc., 2004
189 P A Compagne. Multi-tubular steam reformer and process for catalytic steam reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock. 2014, US Patent Application: 14/008,906
190 A Patra. Oxide dispersion strengthened high temperature alloys. Journal of Masterials Science and Nanomaterials, 2017, 1(1): e101
191 A Karim, J Bravo, D Gorm, T Conant, A Datye. Comparison of wall-coated and packed-bed reactors for steam reforming of methanol. Catalysis Today, 2005, 110(1–2): 86–91
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2005.09.010
192 A Kundu, J Park, J Ahn, S S Park, Y G Shul, H S Han. Micro-channel reactor for steam reforming of methanol. Fuel, 2007, 86(9): 1331–1336
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.08.003
193 A Iulianelli, P Ribeirinha, A Mendes, A Basile. Methanol steam reforming for hydrogen generation via conventional and membrane reactors: a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, 29: 355–368
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.032
194 Z A B Z Alauddin, P Lahijani, M Mohammadi, A R Mohamed. Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in fluidized beds for renewable energy development: a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010, 14(9): 2852–2862
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.026
195 H Nam, Z Wang, S R Shanmugam, S Adhikari, N Abdoulmoumine. Chemical looping dry reforming of benzene as a gasification tar model compound with Ni-and Fe-based oxygen carriers in a fluidized bed reactor. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43(41): 18790–18800
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.103
196 C Bassano, P Deiana. Carbon dioxide reforming of tar during biomass gasification. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2014, 37: 97–102
https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1437017
197 J Abou Rached, M R Cesario, J Estephane, H L Tidahy, C Gennequin, S Aouad, A Aboukaïs, E Abi-Aad. Effects of cerium and lanthanum on Ni-based catalysts for CO2 reforming of toluene. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2018, 6(4): 4743–4754
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.06.054
198 X Bao, M Kong, W Lu, J Fei, X Zheng. Performance of Co/MgO catalyst for CO2 reforming of toluene as a model compound of tar derived from biomass gasification. Journal of Energy Chemistry, 2014, 23(6): 795–800
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4956(14)60214-X
199 W J Jang, J O Shim, H M Kim, S Y Yoo, H S Roh. A review on dry reforming of methane in aspect of catalytic properties. Catalysis Today, 2019, 34: 15–26
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2018.07.032
200 J Rostrupnielsen, J B Hansen. CO2-reforming of methane over transition metals. Journal of Catalysis, 1993, 144(1): 38–49
https://doi.org/10.1006/jcat.1993.1312
201 X Yu, N Wang, W Chu, M Liu. Carbon dioxide reforming of methane for syngas production over la-promoted NiMgAl catalysts derived from hydrotalcites. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2012, 209: 623–632
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.08.037
202 Z Wang, U Oemar, M L Ang, S Kawi. Oxidative steam reforming of biomass tar model compound via catalytic BaBi0.05Co0.8-Nb0.15O3−d hollow fiber membrane reactor. Journal of Membrane Science, 2016, 510: 417–425
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2016.03.014
203 T Mendiara, J M Johansen, R Utrilla, P Geraldo, A D Jensen, P Glarborg. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming (I): carbon deposition in experiments with toluene. Fuel, 2011, 90(3): 1049–1060
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.11.028
204 S Sengodan, R Lan, J Humphreys, D Du, W Xu, H Wang, S Tao. Advances in reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons for hydrogen production and fuel cell applications. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, 82: 761–780
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.071
205 G Kolb. Fuel processing: for fuel cells. Platinum Metals Review, 2008, 53(3): 172–173
206 Y C Lin. Catalytic valorization of glycerol to hydrogen and syngas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38(6): 2678–2700
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.12.079
207 W Nabgan, T A Tuan Abdullah, R Mat, B Nabgan, Y Gambo, M Ibrahim, A Ahmad, A A Jalil, S Triwahyono, I Saeh. Renewable hydrogen production from bio-oil derivative via catalytic steam reforming: an overview. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 79: 347–357
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.069
208 A Di Giuliano, K Gallucci. Sorption enhanced steam methane reforming based on nickel and calcium looping: a review. Chemical Engineering and Processing–Process Intensification, 2018, 130: 240–252
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2018.06.021
209 H Xie, Q Yu, H Lu, Y Zhang, J Zhang, Q Qin. Thermodynamic study for hydrogen production from bio-oil via sorption-enhanced steam reforming: comparison with conventional steam reforming. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(48): 28718–28731
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.155
210 A Di Giuliano, F Giancaterino, C Courson, P U Foscolo, K Gallucci. Development of a Ni-CaO-mayenite combined sorbent-catalyst material for multicycle sorption enhanced steam methane reforming. Fuel, 2018, 234: 687–699
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.07.071
211 S A Wassie, J A Medrano, A Zaabout, S Cloete, J Melendez, D A P Tanaka, S Amini, M van Sint Annaland, F Gallucci. Hydrogen production with integrated CO2 capture in a membrane assisted gas switching reforming reactor: proof-of-concept. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43(12): 6177–6190
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.02.040
212 B Dou, C Wang, Y Song, H Chen, B Jiang, M Yang, Y Xu. Solid sorbents for in-situ CO2 removal during sorption-enhanced steam reforming process: a review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 53: 536–546
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.08.068
213 L Zhang, X Hu, K Hu, C Hu, Z Zhang, Q Liu, S Hu, J Xiang, Y Wang, S Zhang. Progress in the reforming of bio-oil derived carboxylic acids for hydrogen generation. Journal of Power Sources, 2018, 403: 137–156
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.09.097
214 Y Liu, F Goeltl, I Ro, M R Ball, C Sener, I B Aragão, D Zanchet, G W Huber, M Mavrikakis, J A Dumesic. Synthesis gas conversion over Rh-based catalysts promoted by Fe and Mn. ACS Catalysis, 2017, 7(7): 4550–4563
https://doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.7b01381
215 Y C Sharma, A Kumar, R Prasad, S N Upadhyay. Ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production: latest and effective catalyst modification strategies to minimize carbonaceous deactivation. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2017, 74: 89–103
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.049
216 M Sinaei Nobandegani, M R Sardashti Birjandi, T Darbandi, M M Khalilipour, F Shahraki, D Mohebbi-Kalhori. An industrial steam methane reformer optimization using response surface methodology. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2016, 36: 540–549
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.10.031
217 N Lior. Quantifying sustainability for energy development. Energy Bull, 2015, 19: 8–24
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Ruixiang WANG, Yihao ZHANG, Yi LIAO. Performance of rolling piston type rotary compressor using fullerenes (C70) and NiFe2O4 nanocomposites as lubricants additives[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 644-648.
[2] Hilal ÇELİK KAZICI, Şakir YILMAZ, Tekin ŞAHAN, Fikret YILDIZ, Ömer Faruk ER, Hilal KIVRAK. A comprehensive study of hydrogen production from ammonia borane via PdCoAg/AC nanoparticles and anodic current in alkaline medium: experimental design with response surface methodology[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 578-589.
[3] Jianpeng ZHENG, Liubiao CHEN, Ping WANG, Jingjie ZHANG, Junjie WANG, Yuan ZHOU. A novel cryogenic insulation system of hollow glass microspheres and self-evaporation vapor-cooled shield for liquid hydrogen storage[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 570-577.
[4] Liang YIN, Yonglin JU. Review on the design and optimization of hydrogen liquefaction processes[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(3): 530-544.
[5] Jiahui JIN, Lei WANG, Mingkai FU, Xin LI, Yuanwei LU. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrogen production via solar thermochemical cycle based on MoO2/Mo by methane reduction[J]. Front. Energy, 2020, 14(1): 71-80.
[6] Xiaoping CHEN, Jihai XIONG, Jinming SHI, Song XIA, Shuanglin GUI, Wenfeng SHANGGUAN. Roles of various Ni species on TiO2 in enhancing photocatalytic H2 evolution[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(4): 684-690.
[7] Tongbin ZHAO, Jiabo ZHANG, Dehao JU, Zhen HUANG, Dong HAN. Exergy losses in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and hydrogen blends[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(4): 658-666.
[8] Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Hossein GOUDARZI. Feasibility of using wind turbines for renewable hydrogen production in Firuzkuh, Iran[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(3): 494-505.
[9] Mostafa REZAEI, Ali MOSTAFAEIPOUR, Mojtaba QOLIPOUR, Mozhgan MOMENI. Energy supply for water electrolysis systems using wind and solar energy to produce hydrogen: a case study of Iran[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(3): 539-550.
[10] Soheil RASHIDI, Akshay CARINGULA, Andy NGUYEN, Ijeoma OBI, Chioma OBI, Wei WEI. Recent progress in MoS2 for solar energy conversion applications[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 251-268.
[11] Arunkumar JAYAKUMAR. A comprehensive assessment on the durability of gas diffusion electrode materials in PEM fuel cell stack[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(2): 325-338.
[12] Kumar Sai SMARAN, Rajashekar BADAM, Raman VEDARAJAN, Noriyoshi MATSUMI. Flame-retardant properties of in situ sol-gel synthesized inorganic borosilicate/silicate polymer scaffold matrix comprising ionic liquid[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(1): 163-171.
[13] Shuo XU, Jing LIU. Metal-based direct hydrogen generation as unconventional high density energy[J]. Front. Energy, 2019, 13(1): 27-53.
[14] Xiaohe YAN, Xin ZHANG, Chenghong GU, Furong LI. Power to gas: addressing renewable curtailment by converting to hydrogen[J]. Front. Energy, 2018, 12(4): 560-568.
[15] Xiaojing LV, Yu WENG, Xiaoyi DING, Shilie WENG, Yiwu WENG. Technological development of multi-energy complementary system based on solar PVs and MGT[J]. Front. Energy, 2018, 12(4): 509-517.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed