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Frontiers in Energy

Front. Energy    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 43-53
Fractional order extremum seeking approach for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic panels
Ammar NEÇAIBIA1,Samir LADACI2,*(),Abdelfatah CHAREF3,Jean Jacques LOISEAU4
1. Research Unit in Renewable Energies in the Saharan Medium, CDEREPST, URER-MS, Adrar 01000, Algeria; Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Skikda, Skikda 21000, Algeria
2. Department of Electronics, Electrotechnics and Automatics, National Polytechnic School of Constantine, Constantine 25000, Algeria; SP-Lab Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of Constantine 1, Constantine 25000, Algeria
3. SP-Lab Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of Constantine 1, Constantine 25000, Algeria
4. Research Institute in Communications and Cybernetics, CNRS UMR 6597, 1 rue de la No? 44321 Nantes, France
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Due to the high interest in renewable energy and diversity of research regarding photovoltaic (PV) array, a great research effort is focusing nowadays on solar power generation and its performance improvement under various weather conditions. In this paper, an integrated framework was proposed, which achieved both maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and minimum ripple signals. The proposed control scheme was based on extremum-seeking (ES) combined with fractional order systems (FOS). This auto-tuning strategy was developed to maximize the PV panel output power through the regulation of the voltage input to the DC/DC converter in order to lead the PV system steady-state to a stable oscillation behavior around the maximum power point (MPP). It is shown that fractional order operators can improve the plant dynamics with respect to time response and disturbance rejection. The effectiveness of the proposed controller scheme is illustrated with simulations using measured solar radiation data.

Keywords extremum seeking (ES)      fractional order control (FOC)      fractional calculus      photovoltaic (PV) panel      maximum power point tracking (MPPT)     
Corresponding Authors: Samir LADACI   
Just Accepted Date: 12 December 2014   Online First Date: 04 February 2015    Issue Date: 02 March 2015
 Cite this article:   
Ammar NE?AIBIA,Samir LADACI,Abdelfatah CHAREF, et al. Fractional order extremum seeking approach for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic panels[J]. Front. Energy, 2015, 9(1): 43-53.
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Abdelfatah CHAREF
Jean Jacques LOISEAU
Fig.1  Block diagram of the scheme under consideration
Fig.2  Dynamical extremum seeking scheme using fractional order integration
Fig.3  Equivalent circuit model of PV cell
Fig.4  P-V and the I-V characteristic of PV array
Fig.5  Effects of ambient temperature and irradiation variations on P-V and I-V
Fig.6  Basic configuration of boost converter
Fig.7  Overall system: PV panel, boost converter, FOES controller and load
Specification parameter Value
Maximum power (Pmax) (75±10%) W
Maximum power voltage (VMPP) 17.3 V
Maximum power current (IMPP) 4.34 A
Open circuit voltage (Voc) 21. 6 V
Short circuit current (Ioc) 4.67 A
Temperature coefficient of Isc (κIsc) 0.065±0.015 %/C
Temperature coefficient of Voc (κVoc) –160±20 mV/C
Panel efficiency (ηPV) 11.2%
NOCT 47±2C
Tab.1  Electrical characteristics data of PV module ISOFOTON 75I-12, taken from the data-sheet
Parameter Description Value
ncell Number of PV cells arranged in series 36
Rs Series resistance 0.24 Ω
Rp Parallel resistance 670 Ω
η Ideality factor 1.2
Tab.2  Model parameters of PV module ISOFOTON 75I-12
Parameter Description Value
K1 Gradient update law gain1 4
K2 Gradient update law gain 2 4
M Min/Max saturation 0.2
Tab.3  Extremum seeking parameters
Fig.8  Overall system presentation in Matlab/Simulink
Fig.9  Power output (W) of PV panel for different values of fractional order λ
Fig.10  Quadratic error criteria versus the fractional order λ
Fig.11  Outputs of PV panel for “optimal” fractional order value λ = 0.76
Fig.12  PV panel outputs for different values of fractional order λ
Fig.13  Irradiance data for one day in February at URERMS research unit
Fig.14  Irradiance data spanning 30 min from 13:22 to 13:52 A.M. on February 23, 2011
Fig.15  Proposed fractional order ESC-based MPPT response to fixed scenario (Power PV (W))
Fig.16  Proposed fractional order ESC-based MPPT response to varying scenarios
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