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Frontiers in Energy

Front Energ    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 101-109     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-014-0299-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Enhancement of distillate output of double basin solar still with vacuum tubes
Hitesh N PANCHAL1(), P K SHAH2
1. Mechanical Engineering Department, KSV University, Gandhinagar 382023, India; 2. Mechanical Engineering Department, Sal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ahmadabad 380060, India
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Abstract

The latent heat of condensation is lost to the atmosphere; hence it is not utilized to increase distillate output of single basin solar stills. This difficulty was overcome by attaching an additional basin to the main basin. The performance of the double basin solar still was also increased by attaching vacuum tubes to the lower basin; hence the lower basin possessed a higher temperature throughout the day. The latent heat of condensation of the bottom basin was also utilized to increase distillate. But the distillate output of the top basin was even lower compared with that of the bottom basin. This paper proposed a novel approach to increase the distillate output of the double basin solar still attached with vacuum tubes by introducing different sensible energy storage materials like pebbles, black granite gravel and calcium stones to increase the basin area. Experiments were conducted in climate conditions of Mehsana (23.6000° N, 72.4000° E) Gujarat from April to September 2013 with a constant water depth of 2 cm in the top basin with and without the use of basin materials. The results showed that the distillate output of basin material with calcium stones is greater (74%) compared with that of black granite gravel and pebbles. The integration of vacuum tubes with solar still greatly increases the distillate output of the solar still by providing hot water at the lower basin.

Keywords double basin solar still      calcium stones      pebbles      granite gravel      distillate output     
Corresponding Authors: PANCHAL Hitesh N,Email:engineerhitesh2000@gmail.com   
Issue Date: 05 March 2014
 Cite this article:   
Hitesh N PANCHAL,P K SHAH. Enhancement of distillate output of double basin solar still with vacuum tubes[J]. Front Energ, 2014, 8(1): 101-109.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-014-0299-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2014/V8/I1/101
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Hitesh N PANCHAL
P K SHAH
Fig.1  Experimental setup of double basin solar still with vacuum tubes
Fig.2  Data logger attached to double basin solar still with vacuum tubes
Fig.3  Recorded readings of different temperatures in computer with help of data logger
Sr. No.InstrumentAccuracyRangeError/%
1Thermometer/°C±10-1000.25
2Copper Constantan Thermocouple/°C±0.10-1000.5
3Solarimeter /(W·m-2)±10-25002.5
4Anemometer/(m·s-1)±0.10-1510
5Measuring jar/mL±100-100010
Tab.1  Instrument with accuracy, range and percentage error
Fig.4  Comparison of distillate output of top basin of double basin solar still with vacuum tubes (May 21, 2013)
Fig.5  Comparison of cumulative distillate output of top basin with various basin materials (May 21, 2013)
Fig.6  Comparison of water temperatures of top basin with various basin materials (May 21, 2013)
Fig.7  Comparison of inner glass cover temperature of top basin with various basin materials (May 21, 2013)
Fig.8  Comparison of temperatures and distillate output of top basin solar still with pebbles as basin material (May 21, 2013)
Fig.9  Comparison of temperatures and distillate output of top basin solar still with black granite gravel as basin material (May 21, 2013)
Fig.10  Comparison of temperatures and distillate output of top basin solar still with calcium stones as basin material (May 21, 2013)
MaterialsDensity/(kg·m-3)Thermal conductivity/(W·m-1·K-1)Specific heat capacity/(J·kg-1·K-1)
Calcium stones256012.26 - 1.33910
Pebles33302.40 - 2.60720
Blake granite gravel30002.00 - 2.20800
Tab.2  Density, thermal conductivity and specific heat of various basin materials
MonthInsolation/ (W·m-2)No of clear sky daysWater depth/mPebbles distillate output/kgGranite gravel distillate output/kgCalcium stones distillate output/kg
Apr-13750260.023.03.44.0
May-13790250.022.83.34.2
June-13850300.023.03.44.3
July-13780290.023.13.54.0
Aug-13720240.023.03.44.1
Sep-13700210.022.93.44.0
Cumulative distillate output/kg2.93.44.1
Tab.3  Average distillate output of top basin solar still with various basin materials
Sr. No.Name of ResearcherType of active solar stillIncrease in distillate output/%
1Tiwari [19]Evacuated tubes35
2Dev and Tiwari [21]Evacuated coupled with solar still by piping42
3Sampathkumar [22]Evacuated tubes with granite gravel49.7
4Xiong et al. [23]Vacuum tube integrated solar still with folded plates64
5Present workVacuum tube integrated solar still calcium stones74
Tab.4  Comparison of researchers on active solar still
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13 Kalidasa Murugavel K, Chockalingam Kn K S K, Sridhar K. An experimental study on single basin double slope simulation solar still with thin layer of water in the basin. Desalination , 2008, 220(1-3): 687-693
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16 Kalidasa Murugavel K, Srithar K. Performance study on basin type double slope solar still with different wick materials and minimum mass of water. Renewable Energy , 2011, 36(2): 612-620
doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2010.08.009
17 Abdallah S, Abu-Khader M M, Badran O. Effect of various absorbing materials on the thermal performance of solar stills. Desalination , 2009, 242(1-3): 128-137
doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2008.03.036
18 Rajaseenivasan T, Elango T, Kalidasa Murugavel K. Comparative study of double basin and single basin solar stills. Desalination , 2013, 309(1): 27-31
doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2012.09.014
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20 Morrison G L, Buddhihrajo I, Behnia M. Water in glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. Solar Energy , 2004, 76(1-3): 178-189
21 Dev R, Tiwari G N. Annual performance of evacuated tubular collector integrated solar still. Desalination and Water Treatment , 2012, 41(1-3): 204-223
doi: 10.1080/19443994.2012.664715
22 Sampathkumar K, Mayilsamy K, Shanmugam S, Senthilkumar P. An experimental study on single basin solar still augmented with evacuated tubes. Thermal Science , 2012, 16(2): 573-581
doi: 10.2298/TSCI090806079S
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