Please wait a minute...

Frontiers in Energy

Front Energ    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (1) : 12-20     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-012-0172-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Economic analysis of a hybrid solar-fuel cell power delivery system using tuned genetic algorithm
Trina SOM(), Niladri CHAKRABORTY
Power Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098, India
Download: PDF(165 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

An economic evaluation of a network of distributed energy resources (DERs) comprising a microgrid structure of power delivery system in an Indian scenario has been made. The mathematical analysis is based on the application of tuned genetic algorithm (TGA). The analyses for optimal power operation pertaining to minimum cost have been made for two cases in Indian power delivery system. The first case deals with the consumers’ individual optimal operation of DERs, while in the second one, consumers altogether form a microgrid with the optimal supply of power from DERs. The total annual costs for these two cases are found to be economically competitive and encouraging. A reduction of approximately 5.7% in the annual cost has been obtained in the case of microgid system than that in the separately operating consumers’ system for a small locality of India. It is observed that the application of TGA results in a reduction of the minimum cost depicting an improved outcome in terms of energy economy.

Keywords distributed energy resources (DERs)      microgrid      tuned genetic algorithm (TGA)     
Corresponding Authors: SOM Trina,Email:trinasom@gmail.com   
Issue Date: 05 March 2012
 Cite this article:   
Niladri CHAKRABORTY,Trina SOM. Economic analysis of a hybrid solar-fuel cell power delivery system using tuned genetic algorithm[J]. Front Energ, 2012, 6(1): 12-20.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-012-0172-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2012/V6/I1/12
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Niladri CHAKRABORTY
Trina SOM
Fig.1  Load demand in summer for different types of consumer in Indian Context
Fig.2  Load demand in winter for different types of consumer in Indian Context
Fig.3  Load demand variation of all consumers forming a microgrid for a day
Consumers (System)Initial cost of PAFC/105 RsInitial cost of SPS/105 RsInitial cost of BESS/RsRunning cost of PAFC/(Rs·kW-1·h-1)Running cost of BESS/(Rs·kW-1·h-1)
Hostel (Individual)252.0348102555106
Market (Individual)226.8348102555106
Campus-quarters (Individual)189.0348102555106
Hospital (Individual)226.8348102555106
Bank & post office (Individual)189.0348102555106
Microgrid System882.013121333555106
Tab.1  Parameters related to the cost of DERs
Equipments forming microgridCost/103 RsLife time/a
Switching equipments4376
Transformers (step-up & step-downs)335015
Controller2030
Cables (underground & overhead )1090020
Tab.2  Data associated to the constructional cost of microgrid
EquipmentsCost/103 RsLife time/a
Switching equipments4376
Transformers (step-up & step-downs)11515
Controller2030
Cables (underground & overhead )6.55520
Tab.3  Data associated to the set-up cost for each consumer
Optimal power generationHostelHospitalCampus- quartersBank & post-officeMarket
Average fuel cell capacity/kW194.616312585160
Average SPS capacity/kW8080808080
Average BESS capacity/kW101999272128
Purchased capacity/kW5040303020
Tab.4  Optimal power generation for case 1
Optimal power generationMicrogrid power system
Average fuel cell capacity/kW641
Average SPS capacity/kW310
Average BESS capacity/kW126
Purchased capacity/kW20
Tab.5  Optimal power generation for case 2
ConsumerTotal annual cost/103 Rs
Hostel31820
Hospital29819
Campus quarters31140
Market31811
Bank & post office27220
Tab.6  Computed minimum costs for different consumers of case1
Consumers’ operationTotal annual cost/103 Rs
Individual operation151811
Microgrid143052
Tab.7  Comparison of total cost between case 1 and case 2
ConsumerElectric price per unit/Rs
Hostel25.2
Hospital26.1
Campus quarters24.3
Market22.6
Bank & post office26.3
Microgrid20.4
Tab.8  Per unit cost for consumers (case1 and case 2)
1 Lasserter R, Akhil A, Marnay C, Stephens H, Dagle J, Guttromson R, Meliopoulous A S, Yinger R, Eto J. The CERTS microgrid concept. 2002–0430, http://www.pserc.wisc.edu/documents/research_documents/certs_documents/certs_publications/certs_microgrid/certsmicrogridwhitepaper.pdf
2 Hernandez-Aramburo C A, Green T C, Mugniot N. Fuel consumption minimization of a microgrid. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications , 2005, 41(3): 673–681
doi: 10.1109/TIA.2005.847277
3 Marnay C, Venkataramanan G, Stadler M, Siddiqui A S, Firestone R, Chandran B. Optimal technology selection and operation of commercial-building microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems , 2008, 23(3): 975–982
doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2008.922654
4 Michiel H, Petra H, Bouwmans I. Socio-technical complexity in energy infrastructures conceptual framework to study the impact of domestic level energy generation, storage and exchange. In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2006), Taipei, China , 2006, 906–911
5 IEA. Distributed generation in liberalized energy markets. 2002, http://iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2000/distributed2002.pdf
6 Maribu K M, Firestone R M, Marnay C, Siddiqui A S. Distributed energy resources market diffusion model. Elsevier Energy Policy , 2007, 35(9): 4471–4484
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2007.03.005
7 Patterson W D, Whitham J W. The Virtual Power Plant, Standard & Poor’s Utilities & Perspectives Special Technology Issue. New York: McGraw-Hill Co, 1998
8 Watson S, Fredericksen R, Lorencz T. Chicago Power Park Project, Monthly Status Report, The Northeast-Midwest Institute, USA, 2001
9 Marin F, Rey A B, Guerrero A, de Ruz F A. A future microgrid implementation based on renewable distributed resources for a clean green energy production. In: Procceedings of IEEE PES Winter Meeting, New York, USA , 2002, 305–308
10 Marnay C, Robio F, Siddiqui A. Fuel Consumption Minimization of Microgrid. In: Procceedings of IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Columbus, USA 2001, 150–153
11 Meliopoulos A P S. Challenges in simulation and design of grids. In: Procceedings of IEEE PES Winter Meeting, New York, USA , 2002, 309–314
12 Zoka Y, Sugimoto A, Yorino N, Kawahara K, Kubokawa J. An economic evaluation for an autonomous independent network of distributed energy resources. Electric Power Systems Research , 2007, 77(7): 831–838
doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2006.07.006
13 Miranda V, Srinivasan D, Proenca L M. Evolutionary computation in power system. International Journal of Electric power & Energy System , 1998, 20(2): 89–98
14 Farhat I A, El-Hawary M E. Optimization methods applied for solving the short-term hydrothermal co-ordination problem. Electric Power Systems Research , 2009, 79(9): 1308–1320
doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2009.04.001
15 Mandal K K, Basu M, Chakraborty N. Particle swarm optimization-based fuzzy satisfying method for economic environmental dispatch of hydrothermal power systems. International Journal of Automation and Control , 2009, 3(2,3): 216–239
16 Liu C–C, Dillon T. State of the art of expert system application to power systems. International Journal of Electric power & Energy system , 1992, 14(2,3): 95–96
17 AlRashidi M R, El-Hawary M E. Application of computational intelligence techniques for solving the revived optimal power flow problem. Electric Power Systems Research , 2009, 79(4): 694–702
doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2008.10.004
18 Dias A H F, de Vasconcelos J A. Multiobjective genetic algorithms applied to solve optimization problems. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 2002, 38(2): 1133–1136
doi: 10.1109/20.996290
19 Hermann J W. A genetic algorithm for minimax optimization problems. In: Proceedings of the 1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Washington DC , 1999
20 Energy Center of Wisconsin. Fuel Cells for Distributed Generations. Report 193–1: A Technology and Marketing Summary . 2000
21 Wikipedia. Fuel cell. 2011–0923, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fuel_cell
22 Staffel I. Performance Review of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell. 20071130, http://www.formeng.bham.ac.uk/fuelcells/staffel.htm
23 Feret J M, Kelly J L, Pereira A J, Wright M K, Kush A K. Westinghouse PAFC program house. In: Huber W J, ed. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Fuel Cells Contractors Review Meeting, Morgantown, USA , 1992
24 Farhat F A, Simoes M G. Itegration of Alternative Sources of Energy. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006
25 Bhattacharya A B, Kar S K, Bhattacharya R. Diffuse Solar Radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India. Annales Geophysicae , 1994, 14(10): 1051–1059
26 Ladakh Ecological Development Group. Leh, India. 100?kW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Tangtse (Durbuk) . 20110426, http://india.geres.eu/docs/Seminar_proceedings/2-Decentralised_Rural_Electrification/100kW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Tangtse (Durbuk).pdf
27 Alt J T, Anderson M D, Jungst R G. Assessment of Utility side cost savings from battery energy storage. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems , 1997, 13(3): 1112–1120
28 Goldberg E. Hand book of Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1989
29 Pratihar D K. Soft Computing. Beijing: Science Press, 2009
30 Wright A. Genetic Algorithms for Real Parameter Optimization. In: Rawlins G J E, ed. Foundations of Genetic Algorithms I . London: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991, 205–218
31 Eshelman L J, Schaffer J D. Real-coded genetic algorithms and interval schemata. In: Whitley D, ed. Foundation of Genetic Algorithms II . London: Morgan Kaufmann, 1993, 187–202
32 Baker J. Adaptive selection methods for genetic algorithms. In: Grefenstette J J, ed. Procceedings of International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications. Scottsdale: Psychology Press 1985, 101–111
33 Deb K, Goyal M. A combined genetic adaptive search for engineering design. Journal of Computer Science and Informatics , 1996, 26(4): 30–45
34 Pandya J D, Ghosh K K, Rastogi S K. A phosphoric acid fuel cell coupled with biogas. Energy , 1988, 13(4): 383–388
doi: 10.1016/0360-5442(88)90032-1
35 Carlson E, Zogg R, Sriramulu S, Roth K, Brodrick J. Using phosphoric acid fuel cells for distributed generation. ASHRAE Journal , 2006, 49: 50–51
36 Oudalov A, Chartouni D, Ohler C, Linhofer G. Value analysis of battery energy storage applications in power systems. In: Procceedings of the 2nd IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, USA , 2006, 2206–2211
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] S. SURENDER REDDY,Jae Young PARK,Chan Mook JUNG. Optimal operation of microgrid using hybrid differential evolution and harmony search algorithm[J]. Front. Energy, 2016, 10(3): 355-362.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed