Please wait a minute...

Frontiers in Biology

Front. Biol.    2018, Vol. 13 Issue (6) : 452-457
The comparison of insulin and uric acid levels in adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome
Homeira Rashidi1, Hajieh Shahbazian1, Forogh Nokhostin2(), Seyed Mahmood Latifi1, Mehrian Jafarizade2
1. Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2. Department of internal medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Download: PDF(101 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

BACKGROUND and AIM: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) increased in recent years in both adolescents and children groups. The aim of the study is evaluating the relationship between insulin and uric acid (UA) level in MS in adolescents

MATERIALS and METHODS: we studied 120 adolescence aged 10 to 19 in two groups: control group without metabolic syndrome and case group with metabolic syndrome. The Criteria of ATP III was considered as a diagnosis factor for metabolic syndrome.

DISCUSSION: Various studies have been conducted in various populations to evaluate the relationship between UA level and MS in adolescents. Abdominal obesity, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension are associated with high UA level. In their analysis, the MS OR in UA level≤4.9, 4.9-5.8 and≥5.8 mg/dl was 1, 2.53 and 9.03, respectively, which were higher than our findings in current study. Hyperinsulinemia caused by insulin resistance is one of the complications associated with MS, which puts individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events.

RESULTS: Uric acid level in the Case group was significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.0001, 43.8±1.4 vs. 4.1±1 mg/dl, respectively). Insulin level was significantly higher in the case group in compare to the control group (p = 0.008, 9.8±5.3 vs. 12.2±6 mU/ml, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The findings of this case-control study showed that adolescents with metabolic syndrome have a higher uric acid and insulin level in compare to normal subjects. We hypothesis that increase in serum insulin and uric acid level can be a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords metabolic syndrome      uric acid      insulin      adolescents     
Corresponding Author(s): Forogh Nokhostin   
Online First Date: 13 September 2018    Issue Date: 30 November 2018
 Cite this article:   
Homeira Rashidi,Hajieh Shahbazian,Forogh Nokhostin, et al. The comparison of insulin and uric acid levels in adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome[J]. Front. Biol., 2018, 13(6): 452-457.
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Homeira Rashidi
Hajieh Shahbazian
Forogh Nokhostin
Seyed Mahmood Latifi
Mehrian Jafarizade
Variables (2 × 120 n = ) group p
Healthy Patient
Age (year) 15.3±2.6 14.5±2.5 0.1
Systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 104.6±9.8 112.4±9.7 0.04
Diastolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 64.2±9.9 67.8±9.7 0.04
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 74.4±17.9 179.6±73.3 0.3
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) 86.1±7.6 95.1±12.1 0.1
Waist circumference (cm) 65.1±6.9 80.1±13.6 0.01
Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.1±1 4.8±1.4 0.000
Body mass index (kg/m2) 19.2±3.3 22.9±8.7 0.00
Insulin level (mU/ml) 9.8±5.3 12.2±6 0.008
Tab.1  Comparison of variables in two groups
Uric acid level (mg/dl) 4.9≥ 5.8-4.9 ≥5.8
Group (n = 98) Healthy (n = 61) Patient (n = 13) Healthy (n = 27) Patient (n = 9) Healthy (n = 32) Patient
Age year 15.3±2.7 14.1±2.6 15.5±2.5 14.3±2.4 44±1.4 2.3±14.8
Systolic blood pressure mm/.Hg 104.68±10.41 111±10.5 105.4±8.3 114±10.4 102.5±4.6 112±9.04
Diastolic blood pressure mm/.Hg 64.5±10.1 67.04±9 63.3±10.7 67.6±10. 62.8±7.5 96.6±10.6
Triglyceride mg/dl 73.6±16.9 156.8±74.1 75.08±21.9 174.2±61.6 82.5±21.7 182.6±79.3
Fasting blood glucose mg/dl 86.45±7.6 96.47±12.8 82.6±4.8 93.2±10.5 86.5±10.1 11.8±94.1
Waist cm 64.6±6.8 74.49±12.7 65.8±6.5 84.9±13.3 68.2±7.4 86.7±10.8
Uric acid mg/dl 3.8±0.7 3.7±0.8 5.3±0.2 5.3±0.2 6.4±0.4 6.4±0.7
HDL mg/dl 63.4±13.1 44.9±8.2 56±6.7 47.4±10.6 18.7±1.7 21.9±5.7
Body mass index kg / m2 19.1±12.2 21.6±4.7 19.5±2.4 26.8±15.5 18.7±1.7 21.9±5.7
Tab.2  The distribution of metabolic indices in patients and healthy in three serum UA categories.
Uric acid level mg / dl 4.9≥ 5.8-4.9 p1 ≥5.8 p2 p-Trend
OR Metabolic syndrome 1 3.7(1.7-8.04) 0.001 5.9(2.4-14.35) 0.001 0.0001
Abdominal obesity 1 5.8(2.4-13.45) 0.001 11.01(4.1-29.3) 0.001 0.0001
High triglycerides 1 4.36 (2.01-9.47) 0.001 5.75(2.43-13.6) 0.001 0.0001
High blood pressure 1 1.8(0.8-4) 0.1 3.3(1.46-7.48) 0.004 0.001
Higher blood sugar 1 1.27(0.55-2.92) 0.5 1.68(0.74-3.84) 0.2 0.03
Low HDL 1 2.36(1.12-4.90) 0.02 2.15(0.98-4.7) 0.05 0.001
Tab.3  The odds ratio of MS and its indices in three categories of UA serum levels.
1 Anderson J L, May H T, Horne B D, Bair T L, Hall N L, Carlquist J F, Lappé D L, Muhlestein J B, and the Intermountain Heart Collaborative (IHC) Study Group (2010). Relation of vitamin D deficiency to cardiovascular risk factors, disease status, and incident events in a general healthcare population. Am J Cardiol, 106(7): 963–968 pmid: 20854958
2 Balkau B, Charles M A, Drivsholm T, Borch-Johnsen K, Wareham N, Yudkin J S, Morris R, Zavaroni I, van Dam R, Feskins E, Gabriel R, Diet M, Nilsson P, Hedblad B, and the European Group For The Study Of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) (2002). Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohorts, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Metab, 28(5): 364–376
pmid: 12461473
3 Cardoso A S, Gonzaga N C, Medeiros C C, Carvalho D F (2013). Association of uric acid levels with components of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight or obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J), 89(4): 412–418 pmid: 23791233
4 Chen J H, Chuang S Y, Chen H J, Yeh W T, Pan W H (2009). Serum uric acid level as an independent risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular, and ischemic stroke mortality: a Chinese cohort study. Arthritis Rheum, 61(2): 225–232 pmid: 19177541
5 Currie G, Delles C (2013). Proteinuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis, 7: 13–24
pmid: 24379690
6 de Ferranti S D, Gauvreau K, Ludwig D S, Neufeld E J, Newburger J W, Rifai N (2004). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation, 110(16): 2494–2497 pmid: 15477412
7 DeBoer M D, Dong L, Gurka M J ( 2011). Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the ability of metabolic syndrome criteria to predict elevations in fasting insulin levels in adolescents. The Journal of pediatrics. 159(6):975–81. e3
8 Ford E S, Li C, Cook S, Choi H K (2007). Serum concentrations of uric acid and the metabolic syndrome among US children and adolescents. Circulation, 115(19): 2526–2532 pmid: 17470699
9 Haffner S M (2006). The metabolic syndrome: inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol, 97(2 2A): 3A–11A pmid: 16442931
10 Han T S, Lean M E (2016). A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. JRSM Cardiovasc Dis, 5: 2048004016633371 pmid: 26998259
11 Hanley A J, Karter A J, Williams K, Festa A, D’Agostino R B Jr, Wagenknecht L E, Haffner S M (2005). Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus with alternative definitions of the metabolic syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Circulation, 112(24): 3713–3721 pmid: 16344402
12 Haybar H, Jalali M, Zayeri Z (2018). What genetic tell us about cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets, 18(2): 147–152
13 Haybar H, Zayeri Z D (2017). The value of using polymorphisms in anti-platelet therapy. Frontiers in Biology., 12(5): 349–356
14 Kassi E, Pervanidou P, Kaltsas G, Chrousos G (2011). Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies. BMC Med, 9(1): 48 pmid: 21542944
15 Kaur J (2014). A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract. 2014: 943162
16 Kelly C T, Mansoor J, Dohm G L, Chapman W H 3rd, Pender J R 4th, Pories W J (2014). Hyperinsulinemic syndrome: the metabolic syndrome is broader than you think. Surgery, 156(2): 405–411 pmid: 24962189
17 Li C, Hsieh M C, Chang S J (2013). Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hyperuricemia. Curr Opin Rheumatol, 25(2): 210–216 pmid: 23370374
18 Li Q, Zhou Y, Dong K, Wang A, Yang X, Zhang C, Zhu Y, Wu S, Zhao X (2015). The association between serum uric acid levels and the prevalence of vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep, 5(1): 10003 pmid: 25961501
19 Li X, Song P, Li J, Wang P, Li G (2015). Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatol Int, 35(12): 2079–2089 pmid: 26143162
20 Lteif A A, Han K, Mather K J (2005). Obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome: determinants of endothelial dysfunction in whites and blacks. Circulation, 112(1): 32–38 pmid: 15983246
21 MacPherson M, de Groh M, Loukine L, Prud’homme D, Dubois L ( 2016). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents: Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007–2009) and Cycle 2 (2009–2011). Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can, 36(2):32–40
22 Nejatinamini S, Ataie-Jafari A, Qorbani M, Nikoohemat S, Kelishadi R, Asayesh H, Hosseini S (2015). Association between serum uric acid level and metabolic syndrome components. J Diabetes Metab Disord, 14(1): 70 pmid: 26380228
23 Orchard T J, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, Fowler S, and the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2005). The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med, 142(8): 611–619 pmid: 15838067
24 Perez-Ruiz F, Becker M (2015) .Inflammation: a possible mechanism for a causative role of hyperuricemia/gout in cardiovascular disease. Curr Med Res Opin, 31 Suppl 2: 9–14
25 Ritchie S A, Connell J M (2007). The link between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 17(4): 319–326 pmid: 17110092
26 Rutter M K, Meigs J B, Sullivan L M, D’Agostino R B Sr, Wilson P W (2005). Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and incident cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes, 54(11): 3252–3257 pmid: 16249452
27 Shahbazian H, Absalan A, Jalali M T, Mastipour F, Kaydani G A, Zayeri Z D(2018). Comparison of zinc, copper, selenium, magnesium, aluminium and lead blood concentrations in end-stage renal disease patients and healthy volunteers in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Russian Open Medical Journal, 7(1):Article CID e0105
28 Sun H L, Pei D, Lue K H, Chen Y L (2015). Uric acid levels can predict metabolic syndrome and hypertension in adolescents: a 10-year longitudinal study. PLoS One, 10(11): e0143786 pmid: 26618358
29 Sung K C C, Seo M H H, Rhee E J J, Wilson A M (2011). Elevated fasting insulin predicts the future incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study. Cardiovasc Diabetol, 10(1): 108 pmid: 22129309
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Karimeh Haghani, Pouyan Asadi, Gholamreza Taheripak, Ali Noori-Zadeh, Shahram Darabi, Salar Bakhtiyari. Association of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review of literature[J]. Front. Biol., 2018, 13(6): 406-417.
[2] Mallahalli S. Manu, Kuruvanthe S. Rachana, Gopal M. Advirao. Insulin inhibits the JNK mediated cell death via upregulation of AKT expression in Schwann cells grown in hyperglycemia[J]. Front. Biol., 2018, 13(2): 137-144.
[3] Colin G. SCANES, Eldon BRAUN. Avian metabolism: its control and evolution[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(2): 134-159.
Full text