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Frontiers in Biology

Front Biol    2013, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 109-118
Signal convergence through the lenses of MAP kinases: paradigms of stress and hormone signaling in plants
Kundan KUMAR1(), Dhammaprakash Pandhari WANKHEDE2, Alok Krishna SINHA2
1. Department of Plant Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003, USA; 2. National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Road New Delhi 110067, India
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Common mechanisms plants use to translate the external stimuli into cellular responses are the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. These MAPK cascades are highly conserved in eukaryotes and consist of three subsequently acting protein kinases, MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK) and MAP kinase (MAPK) which are linked in various ways with upstream receptors and downstream targets. Plant MAPK cascades regulate numerous processes, including various environmental stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. The number of MAPKKs in Arabidopsis and rice is almost half the number of MAPKs pointing important role of MAPKKs in integrating signals from several MAPKKKs and transducing signals to various MAPKs. The cross talks between different signal transduction pathways are concentrated at the level of MAPKK in the MAPK cascade. Here we discussed the insights into MAPKK mediated response to environmental stresses and in plant growth and development.

Keywords environmental stresses      abiotic stress      biotic stress      mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase      MAPKK      mitogen-activated protein kinase      MAPK      plant signaling     
Corresponding Author(s): KUMAR Kundan,,   
Issue Date: 01 February 2013
 Cite this article:   
Kundan KUMAR,Dhammaprakash Pandhari WANKHEDE,Alok Krishna SINHA. Signal convergence through the lenses of MAP kinases: paradigms of stress and hormone signaling in plants[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(1): 109-118.
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Kundan KUMAR
Dhammaprakash Pandhari WANKHEDE
Alok Krishna SINHA
Fig.1  A typical MAPK cascade and the correspoding number of genes in and . Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is composed of 3 kinases (MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPK) that are sequentially activated by phosphorylation. The corresponding number of genes encoding these kinases in and genome in the MAPK cascade are presented in right.
MKK1Cold, salt, droughtRiceWen et al., 2002; Kumar et al., 2008
MKK1H2O2ArabidopsisXing et al., 2008
MKK2Cold, saltArabidopsisTeige et al., 2004
MKK4, MKK6Cold, saltRiceKumar et al., 2008
MKK4ArseniteRiceRao et al., 2011
MKK9Salt, dehydrationArabidopsisAlzwiy and Morris, 2007; Xu et al., 2008
MKK10-2ColdRiceKumar et al., 2008
SIMKKSaltAlfaalfaKiegerl et al., 2000
MKK1Innate immunityArabidopsisMészáros et al., 2006
MKK1Non-host resistanceTobaccoTakahashi et al., 2007
MKK1Blast and insect resistanceRiceYou et al., 2007
MEK1/NQK1Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)TobaccoLiu et al., 2003
MKK2SA and JAArabidopsisBrader et al., 2007
MKK2, MKK3Pto-mediated resistanceTomatoEkengren et al., 2003
MKK2Various pathogen elicitorsTobaccoYang et al., 2001
MKK3P. syringaeArabidopsisDóczi et al., 2007
MKK4Chitin elicitorRiceKishi-Kaboshi et al., 2010
MKK7P. syringae, H. parasiticaArabidopsisZhang et al., 2007
MKK9Ethylene signaling, Camelexin biosynthesisArabidopsisYoo et al., 2008; Xu et al., 2008
MEK1Cell divisionTobaccoCalderini et al., 2001
MKK3JAArabidopsisTakahashi et al., 2007
MKK4, MKK5Stomatal differentiationArabidopsisWang et al., 2007
SIPKKWounding, ozoneTobaccoGomi et al., 2005
MKK7Auxin transportArabidopsisMou et al., 2002
Tab.1  List of MKKs involved in different biologic processes in plants
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