Please wait a minute...

Frontiers in Biology

Front Biol    2013, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 78-100     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-012-1197-z
REVIEW
Multidisciplinary perspectives on mechanisms of activity of popular immune-enhancing herbal supplements used by athletes
David S. SENCHINA1(), Justus E. HALLAM2, David J. CHENEY3
1. Department of Biology, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311, USA; 2. Department of Kinesiology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA; 3. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Download: PDF(948 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

This paper examines cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underpin the purported effects of five herbal supplements in the context of athlete immune function. Ginseng and echinacea are used frequently by athletes, whereas astragalus and elderberry are used infrequently and pequi is just emerging as a possible supplement. In vivo studies of these products on athlete immune function have yielded heterogeneous results, likely due to experimental design differences. Ginseng, echinacea, elderberry, and pequi are considered asterids sensu lato. Ginseng appears to exert strongest effects on components of adaptive immunity, in particular maintaining Th1/Th2 balance of CD4+ T cells and their downstream effects, via its ginsenosides, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Echinacea alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysacchardies may target both innate and adaptive immunity, though perhaps the former more consistently. Elderberry harbors anthocyanins and lectins which may modulate innate immunity. Data on pequi is limited but suggests that carotenoids, phenols, and fatty acids may alter circulating leukocyte populations. More phylogenetically distant, astragalus is a rosid sensu lato and may influence the innate immune system through flavonoids, polysaccharides, and saponins. Supplements generally demonstrate no effects on physiologic parameters such as lactate, oxygen dynamics, or athletic performance. Bioavailability studies indicate that purported bioactive molecules of these supplements may reach circulation in low but therapeutically-relevant quantities. Difficulties in cross-comparisons due to study design differences, coupled with an overall dearth of research on the topic, currently hamper any formal conclusions regarding the efficacy of these supplements as immunoregulators for athletes.

Keywords athlete      dietary supplement      exercise      herb      immunity      mechanism     
Corresponding Author(s): SENCHINA David S.,Email:dssenchina@drake.edu   
Issue Date: 01 February 2013
 Cite this article:   
David S. SENCHINA,Justus E. HALLAM,David J. CHENEY. Multidisciplinary perspectives on mechanisms of activity of popular immune-enhancing herbal supplements used by athletes[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(1): 78-100.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fib/EN/10.1007/s11515-012-1197-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fib/EN/Y2013/V8/I1/78
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
David S. SENCHINA
Justus E. HALLAM
David J. CHENEY
Common nameScientific nameFamily (Order)HabitEndemic Region
Astragalus, locoweed, or milk vetchAstragalus spp. L.Fabaceae (Fabales)Herbaceous perennial, rarely shrubNorthern Hemisphere
Echinacea or coneflowerEchinacea spp. MoenchAsteraceae (Asterales)Herbaceous perennialNorth America
ElderberrySambucus spp. L.Adoxaceae* (Dipsicales)Shrub or treeGlobal
GinsengPanax spp. L.Araliaceae (Apiales)Herbaceous perennialEastern Asia (most species) and North America
Pequi or souariCaryocar brasilense Cambess.Caryocaraceae (Ericales?)TreeSouth America
Tab.1  Botanical characteristics of herbs in this review
Fig.1  Plants discussed and their most commonly-utilized organs. (A) Ginseng ( spp.; pictured is ). The root is most commonly used. (B) Echinacea ( spp.; pictured is ). Although the underground parts of spp. contain the highest concentrations of purported bioactive molecules, many contemporary commercial operations harvest aboveground parts and allow belowground parts to regenerate to yield multiple harvests. (C) Astragalus ( spp.; pictured is ). Dried roots are most commonly used. (D) Elderberry ( spp.; pictures is ). Most supplements are produced from berry clusters. (E) Pequi (). The nut is used in supplement production.
Fig.2  Selected bioactive molecules from the specimens in Figure 1. (A) Ginsenoside Rc from ginseng. (B) Alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives (such as caftaric acid) from echinacea. (C) Astragaloside IV from astragalus. (D) Quercetin from elderberry. (E) Zeaxanthin from pequi.
ReferencesPopulation*Treatment?Exercise?Immune Outcome§
Engels et al., 2003TR ♂PG 8 wkThree 30 s Wingate testsNo differences in salivary IgA between GT and C
Gaffney et al., 2001TR ♂PG 8 wkNormal in-season trainingNo differences in circulating leukocyte populations between GT and C
Hsu, 2010TR ♂PQ 4 wk60 min treadmill run at 60% VO2max, 10% downhill gradePlasma IL-4 ↑ post-exercise in GT compared to C; no differences in TNF, IL-1β, IL-10
Jung et al., 2011TR ♂RG 7 dTwo 45 min treadmill runsPlasma IL-6 ↓ at 2 h post-exercise in GT compared to C; plasma CK ↓ 72 h post-exercise in GT compared to C
Park et al., 2008TR ♂RG 7 dTwo 45 min treadmill runsPlasma IL-6 ↓ at 2 h post-exercise in GT compared to C
Biondo et al., 2008UT ♂PQ 35 d36 min on cycle ergometer (various % VT based on VO2max)Blood CD8+ T-cells ↑ and in vitro PHA-stimulated PBMC proliferation ↑ in GT compared to C; no differences in other cell subsets, proliferation, or neutrophil oxidative burst
Biondo et al., 2010UT ♀PQ 4 wk36 min on cycle ergometer (various % VT based on VO2max)Blood CD4+CD45RO+, CD4+CD28+, and CD28+ T-cells ↓ post-exercise in GT compared to C; in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst ↑ in GT compared to C; no differences in other cell subsets, proliferation, or NK cell activity
Lau et al., 2011UT ♂PP 3 d30 min treadmill run at 60% VO2maxNo differences in plasma IL-6 between GT and C
Tab.2  Summary of exercise-associated studies of ginseng supplements and immune function in humans
Fig.3  Representative model of current mechanisms research on ginseng supplements with a focus on ginsenoside interactions with rodent splenocyte and blood models. (Bottom): Endurance athletes including runners, cyclists, or triathletes are the populations that consume ginseng most often. (Top) CD4 T-cell-mediated immune responses can be categorized as either Th1 (top left panel) or Th2 (top right panel; see text). Ginsenosides appear to augment both Th1 and Th2 in a balanced way (represented by the see-saw).
Fig.4  Representative model of current mechanisms research on echinacea supplements with a focus on the rodent macrophage. (Right): Echinacea supplements are typically consumed by aerobically-trained athletes such as swimmers. (Left): Summary of selected current research on the effects of echinacea on rodent macrophage inflammation-associated pathways (see text). Positive signs (+) indicate upregulation, negative signs (-) indicate downregulation, and “NE” stands for “no effect.”
ReferenceSpecies*OrganExtractionConstituent (Solvent)?Stimulant?MΦ Type§
Cech et al., 2010PURRootEthanolALK (ethanol)H1N1RAW 264.7
Chen et al., 2005ANG, PAL, PURRootEthanol, methanol, chloroform, hexaneALK (methanol)LPSRAW 264.7
Goel et al., 2002aPURAerialEthanol-waterALK, CAD, POLY (ethanol-water)LPSALV
Goel et al., 2002bPURAerialEthanol-waterALK, CAD, POLY (ethanol-water)LPSALV
LaLone et al., 2007ANG, PAL, PURRootEthanol, chloroform, hexaneALK (ethanol, DMSO)NoneRAW 264.7
LaLone et al., 2009ANG, PAL, PUR, TENRootEthanol, waterALK, KET (ethanol, water)LPSRAW 264.7
Rininger et al., 2000UnknownAerial, RootUnknownUnknownNoneRAW 264.7
Senchina et al., 2010ANG, PAL, PUR, TENRootEthanol, ethanol-waterEthanol, ethanol-waterHSVRAW 264.7
Stevenson et al., 2005ANG, PURRootEthanol-waterALK, CAD (ethanol-water)LPSRAW 264.7
Sullivan et al., 2008PURAerial, rootUnknownPOLY (C-RPMI)NonePER
Zhai et al., 2007ANG, PAL, PURRootEthanol, chloroform, hexaneALK, CAD (ethanol, water)LPS, Salmonella entericaPER,RAW 264.7
Zhai et al., 2009ANG, PAL, PURRootEthanol, chloroform, hexaneALK, CAD (ethanol, water)LPSRAW 264.7
Tab.3  Experimental variables for the data presented in Figure 4
CompoundHigh DoseMiddle DoseLow Dose
Vehicle control765.8±21.9N/AN/A
Caftaric acid790.0±29.1771.8±19.8728.3±6.1
Chlorogenic acid695.8±20.8742.6±30.2798.6±36.2
Cichoric acid746.4±23.2748.8±44.9789.2±47.1
Tab.4  Demonstration of how individual caffeic acid derivatives may have different effects on immune cell proliferation
CytokineSolvent ControlE. angustifoliaE. pallidaE. paradoxaE. purpureaE. tennesseensis
IFN-γ1.00±1.004.70±3.3215.19±5.1012.36±4.1216.56±7.7915.52±4.06
IL-216.53±3.7916.14±1.7022.58±3.7524.11±8.9529.82±4.9825.64±1.86
IL100.52±0.334.44±3.7834.03±9.8313.32±0.81114.83±20.254.04±2.37
TNF5.93±3.93167.72±69.341971.53±397.841081.39±225.902230.02±514.64571.48±155.35
Tab.5  Demonstration of how different species grown and processed under identical conditions can exert different effects on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Fig.5  Representative model of current mechanisms research on supplements with a focus on the rodent macrophage. (Right) Astragalus supplements are consumed by a wide range of athletes for general immune-enhancing effects. (Left) Summary of selected current research on the effects of astragalus on rodent macrophage inflammation-associated pathways. Positive signs (+) indicate upregulation, negative signs (-) indicate downregulation, and “NE” stands for “no effect.”
ReferencesOrganExtractionConstituent (Solvent)*Stimulant?mRNA or ProteinMΦ Type?
(Chao et al., 2009)Root?EthanolUnknown (ethyl acetate, hexane, water)LPS/IFN-γProteinPER
(Cho and Leung, 2007)RootEthanol, waterUnknown (ethanol, water)NoneProteinPER
(Clement-Kruzel et al., 2008)RootAlcohol, waterUnknown (alcohol, water)LPSProteinJ774A.1
(Lee and Jeon, 2005)RootWater, salinePOLY (ethanol)NoneBothPER, RAW 264.7
(Lee et al., 2005)RootWaterUnknown (water)MTXBothRAW 264.7
(Ryu et al., 2008)RootWaterUnknown (PBS)LPS, ZYMBothRAW 264.7
(Shao et al., 2004)RootWater, saline, ethanolPOLY (water)NoneBothPER
(Wang et al., 1989)RootUnknownPOLY (saline)NoneProteinPER
(Xu et al., 2007)UnknownUnknownPOLY, SAP (unknown)GCMProteinPER
(Yin et al., 2010b)UnknownUnknownPOLY (unknown)LPSBothPER
(Yoshida et al., 1997)UnknownWaterUnknown (water)THIO then LPSProteinPER
(Zhang et al., 2011)RootEthanolFLAV (ethanol, methanol)LPSProteinRAW 264.7
(Zhao et al., 2011)RootEthanol, waterPOLY (water)LPSProteinRAW 264.7
Tab.6  Experimental variables for the data presented in Figure 5
Fig.6  Representative model of current mechanisms research on elderberry supplements. (Center) No studies of elderberry supplements on athlete immune function exist, but given its immunostimulatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, elderberry supplements may be of benefits to athlete groups like football players. (Top, Left): Interactions between elderberry supplement components and influenza virus. (Top, Right) Effects of elderberry on macrophage and basophil activities.
Fig.7  Representative model of current mechanisms research in pequi supplements. (Left) To date, all studies on pequi supplements have been performed in runners. (Right) Cut-away view of a blood vessel showing possible effects of pequi supplement ingestion on leukocyte subsets from one study (). Arrows indicate direction of cell counts from pre- to post-treatment and “NE” stands for “no effect.”
1 Ahn J Y, Choi I S, Shim J Y, Yun E K, Yun Y S, Jeong G, Song J Y (2006). The immunomodulator ginsan induces resistance to experimental sepsis by inhibiting Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory signals. Eur J Immunol , 36(1): 37–45
doi: 10.1002/eji.200535138 pmid:16342327
2 Altamirano-Dimas M, Hudson J B, Cochrane D, Nelson C, Arnason J T (2007). Modulation of immune response gene expression by echinacea extracts: results of a gene array analysis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol , 85(11): 1091–1098
doi: 10.1139/Y07-110 pmid:18066111
3 Angiosperm Phylogeny Working Group (2011). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Trees
4 Anonymous (2003). Astragalus membranaceus. Monograph. Altern Med Rev , 8(1): 72–77
pmid:12611564
5 Auyeung K K, Ko J K (2010). Novel herbal flavonoids promote apoptosis but differentially induce cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cell. Invest New Drugs , 28(1): 1–13
doi: 10.1007/s10637-008-9207-3 pmid:19139819
6 Azike C G, Charpentier P A, Hou J, Pei H, King Lui E M (2011). The Yin and Yang actions of North American ginseng root in modulating the immune function of macrophages. Chin Med , 6(1): 21
doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-6-21 pmid:21619635
7 Azvedo-Meleiro C, Rodriguez-Amaya D (2004). Confirmation of the identity of the carotenoids of tropical fruits by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. J Food Compost Anal , 17(3–4): 385–396
doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2004.02.004
8 Bahrke M S, Morgan W R (2000). Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng: an update. Sports Med , 29(2): 113–133
doi: 10.2165/00007256-200029020-00004 pmid:10701714
9 Baldus S E, Thiele J, Park Y O, Charles A, Mross C, Hanisch F G, Zirbes T K, Wickenhauser C, Fischer R (1995). Carbohydrate and peptide antigens in macrophage populations derived from human bone marrow and milk: an immunomorphological and immunochemical analysis. Histochem J , 27(8): 630–638
pmid:8550384
10 Ballard S L, Wellborn-Kim J J, Clauson K A (2010). Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition. Phys Sportsmed , 38(1): 107–117
doi: 10.3810/psm.2010.04.1768 pmid:20424408
11 Barak V, Birkenfeld S, Halperin T, Kalickman I (2002). The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Isr Med Assoc J , 4(11 Suppl): 919–922
pmid:12455180
12 Barnes J, Anderson L A, Gibbons S, Phillipson J D (2005). Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol , 57(8): 929–954
doi: 10.1211/0022357056127 pmid:16102249
13 Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, Rabago D, Marchand L, Scheder J, Mundt M, Thomas G, Barlow S (2011). Placebo effects and the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Fam Med , 9(4): 312–322
doi: 10.1370/afm.1250 pmid:21747102
14 Bedir E, Pugh N, Calis I, Pasco D S, Khan I A (2000). Immunostimulatory effects of cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides from astragalus species. Biol Pharm Bull , 23(7): 834–837
doi: 10.1248/bpb.23.834 pmid:10919362
15 Berg A, Northoff H, Konig D, Weinstock C, Grathwohl D, Parnham M, Stuhlfauth I, Keul J (1998). Influence of Echinacin (EC31) treatment on the exercise-induced immune response in athletes. J Clin Res , 1: 367–380
16 Bergeron M, Senchina D, Burke L, Stear S, Castell L (2010). A-Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for heatlh and performance–Part 13. Br J Sports Med , 44(13): 985–986
doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.078394
17 Biondo P, McCargar L, Harber V, Field C (2010). A randomized controlled trial of ginseng supplementation on the immune response to a moderate exercise stress protocol in non-athletic women. Open Nutr J , 4: 1–10
doi: 10.2174/1874288201004010001
18 Biondo P D, Robbins S J, Walsh J D, McCargar L J, Harber V J, Field C J (2008). A randomized controlled crossover trial of the effect of ginseng consumption on the immune response to moderate exercise in healthy sedentary men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab , 33(5): 966–975
doi: 10.1139/H08-080 pmid:18923572
19 Birt D F, Widrlechner M P, Lalone C A, Wu L, Bae J, Solco A K, Kraus G A, Murphy P A, Wurtele E S, Leng Q, Hebert S C, Maury W J, Price J P (2008). Echinacea in infection. Am J Clin Nutr , 87(2): 488S–492S
pmid:18258644
20 Bishop N C, Gleeson M (2009). Acute and chronic effects of exercise on markers of mucosal immunity. Front Biosci , 14(14): 4444–4456
doi: 10.2741/3540 pmid:19273362
21 Blumenthal M, Urbatsch L (2006). Echinacea taxonomy–is the reclassification of the genus warranted? HerbalGram , 72: 30–31
22 Brush J, Mendenhall E, Guggenheim A, Chan T, Connelly E, Soumyanath A, Buresh R, Barrett R, Zwickey H (2006). The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res , 20(8): 687–695
doi: 10.1002/ptr.1938 pmid:16807880
23 Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (2002) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Wiley .
24 Cech N B, Kandhi V, Davis J M, Hamilton A, Eads D, Laster S M (2010). Echinacea and its alkylamides: effects on the influenza A-induced secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and PGE2 from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Int Immunopharmacol , 10(10): 1268–1278
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2010.07.009 pmid:20674883
25 Chao W W, Kuo Y H, Li W C, Lin B F (2009). The production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in peritoneal macrophages is inhibited by Andrographis paniculata, Angelica sinensis and Morus alba ethyl acetate fractions. J Ethnopharmacol , 122(1): 68–75
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.11.029 pmid:19111919
26 Chen K T, Su C H, Hsin L H, Su Y C, Su Y P, Lin J G (2002). Reducing fatigue of athletes following oral administration of huangqi jianzhong tang. Acta Pharmacol Sin , 23(8): 757–761
pmid:12147200
27 Chen Y, Fu T, Tao T, Yang J, Chang Y, Wang M, Kim L, Qu L, Cassady J, Scalzo R, Wang X (2005). Macrophage activating effects of new alkamides from the roots of Echinacea species. J Nat Prod , 68(5): 773–776
doi: 10.1021/np040245f pmid:15921428
28 Chicca A, Raduner S, Pellati F, Strompen T, Altmann K H, Schoop R, Gertsch J (2009). Synergistic immunomopharmacological effects of N-alkylamides in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts. Int Immunopharmacol , 9(7–8): 850–858
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2009.03.006 pmid:19303464
29 Cho W C, Leung K N (2007). In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett , 252(1): 43–54
doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2006.12.001 pmid:17223259
30 Choi K T (2008). Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer. Acta Pharmacol Sin , 29(9): 1109–1118
doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00869.x pmid:18718180
31 Clement-Kruzel S, Hwang S A, Kruzel M C, Dasgupta A, Actor J K (2008). Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts. J Med Food , 11(3): 493–498
doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0044 pmid:18800897
32 Denzler K L, Waters R, Jacobs B L, Rochon Y, Langland J O (2010). Regulation of inflammatory gene expression in PBMCs by immunostimulatory botanicals. PLoS ONE , 5(9): e12561
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012561 pmid:20838436
33 Dong G C, Chuang P H, Chang K C, Jan P S, Hwang P I, Wu H B, Yi M, Zhou H X, Chen H M (2009). Blocking effect of an immuno-suppressive agent, cynarin, on CD28 of T-cell receptor. Pharm Res , 26(2): 375–381
doi: 10.1007/s11095-008-9754-5 pmid:18989760
34 Engels H J, Fahlman M M, Wirth J C (2003). Effects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 35(4): 690–696
doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000058363.23986.D2 pmid:12673155
35 Fan J H, Hou X M, Hou B, Qiu L, Xu Y (2005). Effect of administration of Chinese traditional herbal preparation for invigorating spleen and strengthening immunity on immune function and exercise capacity of endurance athletes. Chin J Sports Med , 25(3): 88–94
36 Feng H, Chen W, Zhu C (2011). Pharmacokinetics study of bio-adhesive tablet of Panax notoginseng saponins. Int Arch Med , 4(1): 18
doi: 10.1186/1755-7682-4-18 pmid:21658246
37 Ferreira B S, de Almeida C G, Faza L P, de Almeida A, Diniz C G, da Silva V L, Grazul R M, Le Hyaric M (2011). Comparative properties of Amazonian oils obtained by different extraction methods. Molecules , 16(7): 5875–5885
doi: 10.3390/molecules16075875 pmid:21750480
38 Frank T, Janssen M, Netzet G, Christian B, Bitsch I, Netzel M (2007). Absorption and excretion of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) anthocyanins in healthy humans. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol , 29(8): 525–533
doi: 10.1358/mf.2007.29.8.1116309 pmid:18040528
39 Gaffney B T, Hügel H M, Rich P A (2001). The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci , 70(4): 431–442
doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01394-7 pmid:11798012
40 Gertsch J (2008). Immunomodulatory lipids in plants: plant fatty acid amides and the human endocannabinoid system. Planta Med , 74(6): 638–650
doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1034302 pmid:18275004
41 Gertsch J, Schoop R, Kuenzle U, Suter A (2004). Echinacea alkylamides modulate TNF-alpha gene expression via cannabinoid receptor CB2 and multiple signal transduction pathways. FEBS Lett , 577(3): 563–569
doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.10.064 pmid:15556647
42 Goel V, Chang C, Slama J V, Barton R, Bauer R, Gahler R, Basu T K (2002a). Alkylamides of Echinacea purpurea stimulate alveolar macrophage function in normal rats. Int Immunopharmacol , 2(2–3): 381–387
doi: 10.1016/S1567-5769(01)00163-1 pmid:11811940
43 Goel V, Chang C, Slama J, Barton R, Bauer R, Gahler R, Basu T (2002b). Echinacea stimulates macrophage function in the lung and spleen of normal rats. J Nutr Biochem , 13(8): 487–492
doi: 10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00190-0 pmid:12165361
44 Groom S N, Johns T, Oldfield P R (2007). The potency of immunomodulatory herbs may be primarily dependent upon macrophage activation. J Med Food , 10(1): 73–79
doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.233 pmid:17472470
45 Gu Q, Wang B, Wen A, Xie X (2009). Experimental study of the influence of nutritional intervention on immunodeficiency of women's basketball athletes after the high-intensity training. J Northwest Univ (Nat Sci Ed) , 39(6): 24–32
46 Guiotto P, Woelkart K, Grabnar I, Voinovich D, Perissutti B, Invernizzi S, Granzotto M, Bauer R (2008). Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effects of phytotherapeutic lozenges (bonbons) with Echinacea purpurea extract. Phytomedicine , 15(8): 547–554
doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.05.003 pmid:18583121
47 Guo R, Pittler M H, Ernst E (2007). Complementary medicine for treating or preventing influenza or influenza-like illness. Am J Med , 120(11): 923–929, e3
doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.06.031 pmid:17976414
48 Haas H, Falcone F H, Schramm G, Haisch K, Gibbs B F, Klaucke J, P?ppelmann M, Becker W M, Gabius H J, Schlaak M (1999). Dietary lectins can induce in vitro release of IL-4 and IL-13 from human basophils. Eur J Immunol , 29(3): 918–927
doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199903)29:03<918::AID-IMMU918>3.0.CO;2-T pmid:10092096
49 Hall H, Fahlman M M, Engels H J (2007). Echinacea purpurea and mucosal immunity. Int J Sports Med , 28(9): 792–797
doi: 10.1055/s-2007-964895 pmid:17436202
50 Hong F, Xiao W, Ragupathi G, Lau C B, Leung P C, Yeung K S, George C, Cassileth B, Kennelly E, Livingston P O (2011). The known immunologically active components of Astragalus account for only a small proportion of the immunological adjuvant activity when combined with conjugate vaccines. Planta Med , 77(8): 817–824
doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1250574 pmid:21128203
51 Hou C C, Chen C H, Yang N S, Chen Y P, Lo C P, Wang S Y, Tien Y J, Tsai P W, Shyur L F (2010). Comparative metabolomics approach coupled with cell- and gene-based assays for species classification and anti-inflammatory bioactivity validation of Echinacea plants. J Nutr Biochem , 21(11): 1045–1059
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.08.010 pmid:20005088
52 Hsu M (2010). Effect of American ginseng supplementation on cytokines and oxidative stress following an acute downhill running. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 42: S788
doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000386440.19131.ab
53 Ilarraza R, Wu Y, Davoine F, Ebeling C, Adamko D J (2011). Human dendritic cells promote an antiviral immune response when stimulated by CVT-E002. J Pharm Pharmacol , 63(5): 670–678
doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01257.x pmid:21492169
54 Jang H I, Shin H M (2010). Wild Panax ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) protects against methotrexate-induced cell regression by enhancing the immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Am J Chin Med , 38(5): 949–960
doi: 10.1142/S0192415X10008378 pmid:20821825
55 Joh E H, Lee I A, Jung I H, Kim D H (2011). Ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolite compound K inhibit IRAK-1 activation—the key step of inflammation. Biochem Pharmacol , 82(3): 278–286
doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.05.003 pmid:21600888
56 Jung H, Kang H, Chang Y, Kim T (2011). Effect of Panax ginseng supplementation on muscle damage and inflammation after treadmill running in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 43(Suppl 1): S432
doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000401190.68853.65
57 Kang H, Ahn K S, Cho C, Bae H S (2004). Immunomodulatory effect of Astragali radix extract on murine TH1/TH2 cell lineage development. Biol Pharm Bull , 27(12): 1946–1950
doi: 10.1248/bpb.27.1946 pmid:15577210
58 Kenarova B, Neychev H, Hadjiivanova C, Petkov V D (1990). Immunomodulating activity of ginsenoside Rg1 from Panax ginseng. Jpn J Pharmacol , 54(4): 447–454
doi: 10.1254/jjp.54.447 pmid:2087006
59 Kim D Y, Yang W M (2011). Panax ginseng ameliorates airway inflammation in an ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic asthma model. J Ethnopharmacol , 136(1): 230–235
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.048 pmid:21549818
60 Kim M H, Byon Y Y, Ko E J, Song J Y, Yun Y S, Shin T, Joo H G (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of ginsan, a polysaccharide of panax ginseng, on dendritic cells. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol , 13(3): 169–173
doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2009.13.3.169 pmid:19885033
61 Krawitz C, Mraheil M, Stein M, Imirzalioglu C, Domann E, Pleschka S, Hain T (2011) Inhibitory activitiy of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial patho-gens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Comp Alternat Med ,11: 16
62 Kundrat S (2005). Herbs and athletes: can herbal supplements improve performance? Sports Sci Exch , 18: 96
63 LaLone C A, Hammer K D, Wu L, Bae J, Leyva N, Liu Y, Solco A K, Kraus G A, Murphy P A, Wurtele E S, Kim O K, Seo K I, Widrlechner M P, Birt D F (2007). Echinacea species and alkamides inhibit prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. J Agric Food Chem , 55(18): 7314–7322
doi: 10.1021/jf063711a pmid:17696440
64 LaLone C A, Rizshsky L, Hammer K D, Wu L, Solco A K, Yum M, Nikolau B J, Wurtele E S, Murphy P A, Kim M, Birt D F (2009). Endogenous levels of Echinacea alkylamides and ketones are important contributors to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in cultured macrophages. J Agric Food Chem , 57(19): 8820–8830
doi: 10.1021/jf901202y pmid:19807154
66 Lee E J, Ko E, Lee J, Rho S, Ko S, Shin M K, Min B I, Hong M C, Kim S Y, Bae H (2004). Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances CD4+ T-cell activities and modulates Th1/Th2 differentiation. Int Immunopharmacol , 4(2): 235–244
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2003.12.007 pmid:14996415
67 Lee J H, Han Y (2006). Ginsenoside Rg1 helps mice resist to disseminated candidiasis by Th1 type differentiation of CD4+ T cell. Int Immunopharmacol , 6(9): 1424–1430
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2006.04.009 pmid:16846836
68 Lee K Y, Jeon Y J (2005). Macrophage activation by polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus. Int Immunopharmacol , 5(7–8): 1225–1233
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2005.02.020 pmid:15914327
69 Lee Y S, Han O K, Park C W, Yang C H, Jeon T W, Yoo W K, Kim S H, Kim H J (2005). Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and nitric oxide regulation of aqueous extracted Astragali radix in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol , 100(3): 289–294
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.03.009 pmid:15871914
70 Leung K, Wong A (2010). Pharmacology of ginsenosides: A literature review. Chin Med , 5: 20
pmid:20205902
71 Li S (1986). The effect of Radix Astragali on swimming endurance of mice and its relation with the gonads. J Chin Med Univ , 3: 11–21
72 Linde K, Barrett B, W?lkart K, Bauer R, Melchart D (2006). Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev , (1): CD000530
pmid:16437427
73 Liu Q, Yao Y, Yu Y, Dong N, Sheng Z (2011a). Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate postburn sepsis via inhibiting negative immunoregulation of CD4+CD25high T cells. PLoS ONE , 6(6): 19811
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019811
74 Liu Q Y, Yao Y M, Zhang S W, Sheng Z Y (2011b). Astragalus polysaccharides regulate T cell-mediated immunity via CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol , 136(3): 457–464
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.06.041 pmid:20620204
75 Luo Y M, Cheng X J, Yuan W X (1993). Effects of ginseng root saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 on immunity in cold water swim stress mice and rats. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao , 14(5): 401–404 (abstract only)
pmid:8010026
76 Mabberley D (1997). The Plant-Book. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
77 Mackinnon L T (1994). Current challenges and future expectations in exercise immunology: back to the future. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 26(2): 191–194
doi: 10.1249/00005768-199402000-00009 pmid:8164536
78 Main L C, Dawson B, Heel K, Grove J R, Landers G J, Goodman C (2010). Relationship between inflammatory cytokines and self-report measures of training overload. Res Sports Med , 18(2): 127–139
doi: 10.1080/15438621003627133 pmid:20397115
79 Martin S A, Pence B D, Woods J A (2009). Exercise and respiratory tract viral infections. Exerc Sport Sci Rev , 37(4): 157–164
pmid:19955864
80 Matthias A, Banbury L, Bone K M, Leach D N, Lehmann R P (2008). Echinacea alkylamides modulate induced immune responses in T-cells. Fitoterapia , 79(1): 53–58
doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2007.07.012 pmid:17855021
81 Miranda-Vilela A L, Akimoto A K, Alves P C, Pereira L C, Gon?alves C A, Klautau-Guimar?es M N, Grisolia C K (2009a). Dietary carotenoid-rich pequi oil reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in runners and evidence for an association with MnSOD genetic variant -Val9Ala. Genet Mol Res , 8(4): 1481–1495
doi: 10.4238/vol8-4gmr684 pmid:20082261
82 Miranda-Vilela A L, Akimoto A K, Alves P C, Pereira L C, Klautau-Guimar?es M N, Grisolia C K (2010). Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia). Genet Mol Biol , 33(2): 359–367
doi: 10.1590/S1415-47572010005000022 pmid:21637495
83 Miranda-Vilela A, Lordelo G, Akimoto A, Alves P, Pereira L, Klautau-Guimaraes M, Grisiola C (2011). Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Runners' responses to the Dietary Ingestion of Antioxidant Suplpementation Based on Pequi Oil (Caryocar brasilense Camb.): A Before-after Study. Genes Nutre, 6(4): 369–395
84 Miranda-Vilela A L, Pereira L C, Gon?alves C A, Grisolia C K (2009b). Pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) pulp oil reduces exercise-induced inflammatory markers and blood pressure of male and female runners. Nutr Res , 29(12): 850–858
doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.10.022 pmid:19963158
85 Modarai M, Yang M, Suter A, Kortenkamp A, Heinrich M (2010). Metabolomic profiling of liquid Echinacea medicinal products with in vitro inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Planta Med , 76(4): 378–385
doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1186152 pmid:19790031
86 Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M, Janeway C (2011). Janeway's Immunobiology. 8th ed . Garland: New York, New York
87 Nalbantsoy A, Nesil T, Erden S, Cal?? I, Bedir E (2011). Adjuvant effects of Astragalus saponins macrophyllosaponin B and astragaloside VII. J Ethnopharmacol , 134(3): 897–903
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.054 pmid:21296141
88 Ni W, Zhang X, Wang B, Chen Y, Han H, Fan Y, Zhou Y, Tai G (2010). Antitumor activities and immunomodulatory effects of ginseng neutral polysaccharides in combination with 5-fluorouracil. J Med Food , 13(2): 270–277
doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1119 pmid:20132044
89 Nieman D C (1994). Exercise, infection, and immunity. Int J Sports Med , 15(S 3 Suppl 3): S131–S141
doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1021128 pmid:7883395
90 Ody P (2000). Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. DK Adult
91 Palisin T E, Stacy J J (2006). Ginseng: is it in the root? Curr Sports Med Rep , 5(4): 210–214
pmid:16822344
92 Park S, Jung H, Hong S, Kang Y, Lee G, Kim S, Kang H, Lee C (2008). Effects of red ginseng intake on interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol responses after high-intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 40(Supplement): S432
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000322841.72766.d6
93 Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Magro L, Melegari M, Soragni F (2004). Analysis of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of Echinacea spp. J Pharm Biomed Anal , 35(2): 289–301
doi: 10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00645-9 pmid:15063463
94 Petroczi A, Naughton D, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J (2007a). Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: A retrospective study. Nutr J , 8: 6--15
pmid:17386092
95 Petroczi A, Naughton D, Mazanov J, Holloway A, Bingham J (2007b). Performance enhancement with supplements: Incongruence between rationale and practice. J Int Soc Sports Nutr , 4: 19
pmid:17908338
96 Petryniak J, Huard T K, Goldstein I J (1992). alpha-D-galactose-bearing glycoproteins on the surface of stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of purified glycoproteins. Eur J Biochem , 206(1): 197–207
doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992.tb16917.x pmid:1587269
97 Porta S, Wurzinger S, Wintersteiger R (2007). Determination of physiological effects of elderberry biopolyphenols in humans using ICU equipment. In: Berry Health Symposium: Corvallis, OR
98 Pugh N D, Tamta H, Balachandran P, Wu X, Howell J, Dayan F E, Pasco D S (2008). The majority of in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of some immune enhancing botanicals is due to bacterial lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides. Int Immunopharmacol , 8(7): 1023–1032
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2008.03.007 pmid:18486914
99 Pusztai A, Ewen S W, Grant G, Peumans W J, van Damme E J, Rubio L, Bardocz S (1990). Relationship between survival and binding of plant lectins during small intestinal passage and their effectiveness as growth factors. Digestion , 46(Suppl 2): 308–316
doi: 10.1159/000200402 pmid:2262064
100 Pyne D B, Baker M S, Fricker P A, McDonald W A, Telford R D, Weidemann M J (1995). Effects of an intensive 12-wk training program by elite swimmers on neutrophil oxidative activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 27(4): 536–542
doi: 10.1249/00005768-199504000-00011 pmid:7791584
101 Qu L L, Su Y L, Li C X, Hou G H (2010). Astragalus membranaceus injection delayed allograft survival related with CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Transplant Proc , 42(9): 3793–3797
doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.08.032 pmid:21094858
102 Raduner S, Majewska A, Chen J Z, Xie X Q, Hamon J, Faller B, Altmann K H, Gertsch J (2006). Alkylamides from Echinacea are a new class of cannabinomimetics. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects. J Biol Chem , 281(20): 14192–14206
doi: 10.1074/jbc.M601074200 pmid:16547349
103 Rajput Z I, Hu S H, Xiao C W, Arijo A G (2007). Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B , 8(3): 153–161
doi: 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0153 pmid:17323426
104 Rininger J A, Kickner S, Chigurupati P, McLean A, Franck Z (2000). Immunopharmacological activity of Echinacea preparations following simulated digestion on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Leukoc Biol , 68(4): 503–510
pmid:11037971
105 Rivera E, Ekholm Pettersson F, Ingan?s M, Paulie S, Gr?nvik K O (2005). The Rb1 fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccine , 23(46–47): 5411–5419
doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.04.007 pmid:16286158
106 Robson P J, Blannin A K, Walsh N P, Castell L M, Gleeson M (1999). Effects of exercise intensity, duration and recovery on in vitro neutrophil function in male athletes. Int J Sports Med , 20(2): 128–135
pmid:10190775
107 Roschek B Jr, Fink R C, McMichael M D, Li D, Alberte R S (2009). Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry , 70(10): 1255–1261
doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003 pmid:19682714
108 Rosenfield C (2005). The use of ergogenic agents in high school athletes. J Sch Nurs , 21(6): 333–339
doi: 10.1177/10598405050210060601 pmid:16285842
109 Ryu M, Kim E H, Chun M, Kang S, Shim B, Yu Y B, Jeong G, Lee J S (2008). Astragali Radix elicits anti-inflammation via activation of MKP-1, concomitant with attenuation of p38 and Erk. J Ethnopharmacol , 115(2): 184–193
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.09.027 pmid:17996413
110 Schippinger G, Wonisch W, Abuja P M, Fankhauser F, Winklhofer-Roob B M, Halwachs G (2002). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in professional American football players during competition. Eur J Clin Invest , 32(9): 686–692
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2362.2002.01021.x pmid:12486869
111 Schmitzer V, Veberic R, Slatnar A, Stampar F (2010). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) wine: a product rich in health promoting compounds. J Agric Food Chem , 58(18): 10143–10146
doi: 10.1021/jf102083s pmid:20735034
112 Schoop R, Büechi S, Suter A (2006). Open, multicenter study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of Echinaforce Forte tablets in athletes. Adv Ther , 23(5): 823–833
doi: 10.1007/BF02850324 pmid:17142219
113 Senchina D, Bermon S, Stear S, Burke L, Castell L (2011). BJSM reviews: A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 17. Br J Sports Med , 45(2): 150–151
doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.082859
114 Senchina D S, Flagel L E, Wendel J F, Kohut M L (2006a). Phenetic comparison of seven Echinacea species based on immunomodulatory charateristics. Econ Bot , 60(3): 205–211
doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2006)60[205:PCOSES]2.0.CO;2 pmid:18301733
115 Senchina D S, Hallam J E, Dias A S, Perera M A (2009a). Human blood mononuclear cell in vitro cytokine response before and after two different strenuous exercise bouts in the presence of bloodroot and Echinacea extracts. Blood Cells Mol Dis , 43(3): 298–303
doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2009.08.003 pmid:19766513
116 Senchina D S, Martin A E, Buss J E, Kohut M L (2010). Effects of Echinacea extracts on macrophage antiviral activities. Phytother Res , 24(6): 810–816
pmid:20041425
117 Senchina D S, McCann D A, Flinn G N, Wu L, Zhai Z, Cunnick J E, Wurtele E S, Kohut M L (2009b). Echinacea tennesseensis ethanol tinctures harbor cytokine- and proliferation-enhancing capacities. Cytokine , 46(2): 267–272
doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.02.007 pmid:19286391
118 Senchina D S, Shah N B, Doty D M, Sanderson C R, Hallam J E (2009c). Herbal supplements and athlete immune function—what’s proven, disproven, and unproven? Exerc Immunol Rev , 15: 66–106
pmid:19957872
119 Senchina D S, Wu L, Flinn G N, Konopka N, McCoy J A, Widrlechner M P, Wurtele E S, Kohut M L (2006b). Year-and-a-half old, dried Echinacea roots retain cytokine-modulating capabilities in an in vitro human older adult model of influenza vaccination. Planta Med , 72(13): 1207–1215
doi: 10.1055/s-2006-947254 pmid:17021999
120 Serkedjieva J, Manolova N, Zgomiak-Nowosielska I, Zawilinska B, Grzybek J (1990). Antiviral activity of the infusion (SHS-174) from flowers of Sambucus nigra L., aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L., and roots of Saponaria officinalis L. against influenza and herpes simplex viruses. Phytother Res , 4(3): 97–100
doi: 10.1002/ptr.2650040305
121 Shao B M, Xu W, Dai H, Tu P, Li Z, Gao X M (2004). A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun , 320(4): 1103–1111
doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.06.065 pmid:15249203
122 Shealy C (2009). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbal Remedies. HarperCollins Publishers
123 Shibuya N, Goldstein I J, Broekaert W F, Nsimba-Lubaki M, Peeters B, Peumans W J (1987). The elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark lectin recognizes the Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)Gal/GalNAc sequence. J Biol Chem , 262(4): 1596–1601
pmid:3805045
124 Shibuya N, Tazaki K, Song Z W, Tarr G E, Goldstein I J, Peumans W J (1989). A comparative study of bark lectins from three elderberry (Sambucus) species. J Biochem , 106(6): 1098–1103
pmid:2628427
125 Song X, Chen J, Sakwiwatkul K, Li R, Hu S (2010). Enhancement of immune responses to influenza vaccine (H3N2) by ginsenoside Re. Int Immunopharmacol , 10(3): 351–356
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2009.12.009 pmid:20034596
126 Song X, Hu S (2009). Adjuvant activities of saponins from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Vaccine , 27(36): 4883–4890
doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.033 pmid:19559122
127 Song X, Zang L, Hu S (2009). Amplified immune response by ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes). Vaccine , 27(17): 2506–2511
doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.040 pmid:19368793
128 Stevenson L M, Matthias A, Banbury L, Penman K G, Bone K M, Leach D L, Lehmann R P (2005). Modulation of macrophage immune responses by Echinacea. Molecules , 10(10): 1279–1285
doi: 10.3390/10101279 pmid:18007520
129 Su W, Sun A J, Xu D L, Zhang H Q, Yang L, Yuan L Y, Jia J G, Zou Y Z, Wu Y L, Wang K Q, Ge J B (2010). Inhibiting effects of total saponins of panax ginseng on immune maturation of dendritic cells induced by oxidized-low density lipoprotein. Cell Immunol , 263(1): 99–104
doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2010.03.004 pmid:20362279
130 Su Y C, Lin C J, Chen K T, Lee S M, Lin J S, Tsai C C, Chou Y, Lin J G (2001). Effects of huangqi jianzhong tang on hematological and biochemical parameters in judo athletes. Acta Pharmacol Sin , 22(12): 1154–1158
pmid:11749817
131 Sullivan A M, Laba J G, Moore J A, Lee T D (2008). Echinacea-induced macrophage activation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol , 30(3): 553–574
doi: 10.1080/08923970802135534 pmid:18618312
132 Sun J, Song X, Hu S (2008). Ginsenoside Rg1 and aluminum hydroxide synergistically promote immune responses to ovalbumin in BALB/c mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol , 15(2): 303–307
doi: 10.1128/CVI.00448-07 pmid:18094107
133 Tan B K, Vanitha J (2004). Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review. Curr Med Chem , 11(11): 1423–1430
pmid:15180575
134 Tung N H, Quang T H, Son J H, Koo J E, Hong H J, Koh Y S, Song G Y, Kim Y H (2011). Inhibitory effect of ginsenosides from steamed ginseng-leaves and flowers on the LPS-stimulated IL-12 production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Arch Pharm Res , 34(4): 681–685
doi: 10.1007/s12272-011-0419-2 pmid:21544734
135 Vlachojannis J E, Cameron M, Chrubasik S (2010). A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res , 24(1): 1–8
doi: 10.1002/ptr.2729 pmid:19548290
136 Waknine-Grinberg J H, El-On J, Barak V, Barenholz Y, Golenser J (2009). The immunomodulatory effect of Sambucol on leishmanial and malarial infections. Planta Med , 75(6): 581–586
doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185357 pmid:19214946
137 Walsh N P, Gleeson M, Pyne D B, Nieman D C, Dhabhar F S, Shephard R J, Oliver S J, Bermon S, Kajeniene A (2011a). Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health. Exerc Immunol Rev , 17: 64–103
pmid:21446353
138 Walsh N P, Gleeson M, Shephard R J, Gleeson M, Woods J A, Bishop N C, Fleshner M, Green C, Pedersen B K, Hoffman-Goetz L, Rogers C J, Northoff H, Abbasi A, Simon P (2011b). Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev , 17: 6–63
pmid:21446352
139 Wang C Y, Chiao M T, Yen P J, Huang W C, Hou C C, Chien S C, Yeh K C, Yang W C, Shyur L F, Yang N S (2006). Modulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on human dendritic cells: a cell- and gene-based study. Genomics , 88(6): 801–808
doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.08.011 pmid:17011161
140 Wang C Y, Staniforth V, Chiao M T, Hou C C, Wu H M, Yeh K C, Chen C H, Hwang P I, Wen T N, Shyur L F, Yang N S (2008). Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells. BMC Genomics , 9(1): 479
doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-479 pmid:18847511
141 Wang J, Ito H, Shimura K (1989). Enhancing effect of antitumor polysaccharide from Astragalus or Radix hedysarum on C3 cleavage production of macrophages in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol , 51(3): 432–434
doi: 10.1254/jjp.51.432 pmid:2622096
142 Wang P, Liang Y, Zhou N, Chen B, Yi L, Yu Y, Yi Z (2007). Screening and analysis of the multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites of Dangguibuxue decoction by the metabolic fingerprinting technique and liquid chromatography/diode-array detection mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom , 21(2): 99–106
doi: 10.1002/rcm.2816 pmid:17154345
143 Whitehead M T, Martin T D, Scheett T P, Webster M J (2007a). The effect of 4 wk of oral echinacea supplementation on serum erythropoietin and indices of erythropoietic status. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab , 17(4): 378–390
pmid:17962712
144 Whitehead M, Martin T, Webster M, Scheet T (2007b). Improved running economy and maximal oxygen consumption after 4 weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 39(Supplement): S90
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000273267.15536.5c
145 Woelkart K, Bauer R (2007). The role of alkamides as an active principle of echinacea. Planta Med , 73(7): 615–623
doi: 10.1055/s-2007-981531 pmid:17538868
146 Woelkart K, Marth E, Suter A, Schoop R, Raggam R B, Koidl C, Kleinhappl B, Bauer R (2006). Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their interaction with the immune system. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther , 44(9): 401–408
pmid:16995328
147 Woelkart K, Xu W, Pei Y, Makriyannis A, Picone R P, Bauer R (2005). The endocannabinoid system as a target for alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia roots. Planta Med , 71(8): 701–705
doi: 10.1055/s-2005-871290 pmid:16142631
148 Wu L, Dixon P M, Nikolau B J, Kraus G A, Widrlechner M P, Wurtele E S (2009). Metabolic profiling of echinacea genotypes and a test of alternative taxonomic treatments. Planta Med , 75(2): 178–183
doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1112199 pmid:19101884
149 Wu Y, Wu D, Hu Z (2007). Effect of extract of Astragalus on fatigue and recovery protocol of mice. Pharmacol Clin Chin Materia Medica , 6: 88–97
150 Xu F, Zhang Y, Xiao S, Lu X, Yang D, Yang X, Li C, Shang M, Tu P, Cai S (2006). Absorption and metabolism of Astragali radix decoction: in silico, in vitro, and a case study in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos , 34(6): 913–924
pmid:16507649
151 Xu H D, You C G, Zhang R L, Gao P, Wang Z R (2007). Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides and astragalosides on the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages. J Int Med Res , 35(1): 84–90
pmid:17408058
152 Yang M, Koo S I, Song W O, Chun O K (2011). Food matrix affecting anthocyanin bioavailability: review. Curr Med Chem , 18(2): 291–300 (Review)
doi: 10.2174/092986711794088380 pmid:21110799
153 Yang Z, Chen A, Sun H, Ye Y, Fang W (2007). Ginsenoside Rd elicits Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine , 25(1): 161–169
doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.075 pmid:16950547
154 Ye Z, Hong C O, Lee K, Hostetter J, Wannemuehler M, Hendrich S (2011). Plasma caffeic acid is associated with statistical clustering of the anticolitic efficacy of caffeic acid in dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. J Nutr , 141(11): 1989–1995
doi: 10.3945/jn.111.142208 pmid:21918060
155 Yesilada E, Bedir E, Cali? I, Takaishi Y, Ohmoto Y (2005). Effects of triterpene saponins from Astragalus species on in vitro cytokine release. J Ethnopharmacol , 96(1–2): 71–77
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.036 pmid:15588652
156 Yin H, Ge X, Li Z (1995) Effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs on anti-fatigue in mice and athletes. Chin J Sports Med , 3: 28–35
157 Yin S Y, Wang W H, Wang B X, Aravindaram K, Hwang P I, Wu H M, Yang N S (2010a). Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses. BMC Genomics , 11(1): 612
doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-612 pmid:21040561
158 Yin X, Chen L, Liu Y, Yang J, Ma C, Yao Z, Yang L, Wei L, Li M (2010b). Enhancement of the innate immune response of bladder epithelial cells by Astragalus polysaccharides through upregulation of TLR4 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun , 397(2): 232–238
doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.05.090 pmid:20546703
159 Yoshida Y, Wang M Q, Liu J N, Shan B E, Yamashita U (1997). Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular. Int J Immunopharmacol , 19(7): 359–370
doi: 10.1016/S0192-0561(97)00076-3 pmid:9568540
160 Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J (2004). Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res , 32(2): 132–140
pmid:15080016
161 Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, Manor O, Regev L, Schlesinger M, Mumcuoglu M (1995). Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama. J Altern Complement Med , 1(4): 361–369
doi: 10.1089/acm.1995.1.361 pmid:9395631
162 Zhai Z, Haney D, Wu L, Solco A, Murphy P A, Wurtele E S, Kohut M L, Cunnick J E (2007). Alcohol extracts of Echinacea inhibit production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by macrophages in vitro. Food Agric Immunol , 18(3–4): 221–236
doi: 10.1080/09540100701797363 pmid:18458735
163 Zhai Z, Solco A, Wu L, Wurtele E S, Kohut M L, Murphy P A, Cunnick J E (2009). Echinacea increases arginase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, indicative of alternative macrophage activation. J Ethnopharmacol , 122(1): 76–85
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.11.028 pmid:19111603
164 Zhang L J, Liu H K, Hsiao P C, Kuo L M, Lee I J, Wu T S, Chiou W F, Kuo Y H (2011). New isoflavonoid glycosides and related constituents from astragali radix (Astragalus membranaceus) and their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production. J Agric Food Chem , 59(4): 1131–1137
doi: 10.1021/jf103610j pmid:21280630
165 Zhang W, Zhang C, Liu R, Li H, Zhang J, Mao C, Chen C (2005). Quantitative determination of Astragaloside IV, a natural product with cardioprotective activity, in plasma, urine and other biological samples by HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci , 822(1–2): 170–177
doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.05.034 pmid:15990371
166 Zhao L, Ma Z, Zhu J, Yu X, Weng D (2011). Characterizatipon of polysaccharide from Astragalus radix as the macrophage stimulator. Cell Immunol , 271(2):329–34
167 Zhou L, Wang Q, Yi M, Bi Q, Xu B, Gao H, Yang Z (2005). Effects of endurance training and supplementation of herbal polysaccharides extracts on IL-2 and its receptors levels in rats. Chin J Sports Med , 24(3): 45–52
168 Ziemba A W, Chmura J, Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Nazar K, Wisnik P, Gawronski W (1999). Ginseng treatment improves psychomotor performance at rest and during graded exercise in young athletes. Int J Sport Nutr , 9(4): 371–377
pmid:10660868
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Pathomwat Wongrattanakamon,Vannajan Sanghiran Lee,Piyarat Nimmanpipug,Supat Jiranusornkul. Nucleotide binding domain 1 pharmacophore modeling for visualization and analysis of P-glycoprotein–flavonoid molecular interactions[J]. Front. Biol., 2016, 11(5): 391-395.
[2] P. Shannon PENDERGRAST, Tom VOLPE. MicroRNA rules: Made to be broken[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(5): 468-474.
[3] Taiyong BI, Fang FANG. Neural plasticity in high-level visual cortex underlying object perceptual learning[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(4): 434-443.
[4] Tanapat PALAGA, Lisa M. MINTER. Notch signaling and its emerging role in autoimmunity[J]. Front Biol, 2013, 8(3): 279-294.
[5] Wenxiong LIN, Changxun FANG, Ting CHEN, Ruiyu LIN, Jun XIONG, Haibin WANG. Rice allelopathy and its properties of molecular ecology[J]. Front Biol, 2010, 5(3): 255-262.
[6] Philip H.-S. Jen, . Adaptive mechanisms underlying the bat biosonar behavior[J]. Front. Biol., 2010, 5(2): 128-155.
[7] Feng DING, Jian-Chao YANG, Fang YUAN, Bao-Shan WANG, . Progress in mechanism of salt excretion in recretohalopytes[J]. Front. Biol., 2010, 5(2): 164-170.
[8] Xiaonan TI, Qunchi ZHANG. Advances in research of induced resistance to insects in cotton[J]. Front Biol Chin, 2009, 4(3): 289-297.
[9] KONG Lingbin, YANG Zhiyin, DING Shouhua, AN Rui. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats[J]. Front. Biol., 2008, 3(2): 147-153.
[10] WANG Xiaowei, LIU Yan, JI Lanzhu, WANG Guiqing. Potential effects of elevated carbon dioxide on leaf-feeding forest insects[J]. Front. Biol., 2008, 3(1): 68-77.
[11] GAN Guangming, ZHANG Yaoguang. Cortical reaction and solicitation mechanism in Hemibarbus labeo ovum[J]. Front. Biol., 2006, 1(4): 398-406.
[12] ZHANG Liquan, ZHEN Yu. An artificial neural network model of the landscape pattern in Shanghai metropolitan region, China[J]. Front. Biol., 2006, 1(4): 463-469.
[13] LIU Peng, YANG Y. S., XU Gendi, GUO Shuiliang, ZHENG Xiaobin, WANG Min. Physiological responses of four herbaceous plants to aluminum stress in South China[J]. Front. Biol., 2006, 1(3): 295-302.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed