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Frontiers in Biology

Front Biol    2011, Vol. 6 Issue (4) : 263-273     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11515-011-1124-8
REVIEW
Advances in medical decision support systems for diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease: molecular and computational intelligence joint approaches
Maurizio FIASCHé1,2(), Maria CUZZOLA2, Giuseppe IRRERA2, Pasquale IACOPINO3, Francesco Carlo MORABITO1
1. DIMET, University “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria, Italy; 2. Transplant Regional Center of Stem Cells and Cellular Therapy, “A. Neri” , Reggio Calabria, Italy; 3. School of Hematology, University of Messina, Italy
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Abstract

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious systemic complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Acute GVHD occurs when alloreactive donor-derived T cells recognize host-recipient antigens as foreign. These trigger a complex multiphase process that ultimately results in apoptotic injury in target organs. The early events leading to GVHD seem to occur very soon, presumably within hours from the graft infusion. Therefore, when the first signs of aGVHD clinically manifest, the disease has been ongoing for several days at the cellular level, and the inflammatory cytokine cascade is fully activated. So, it comes as no surprise that progress in treatment based on clinical diagnosis of aGVHD has been limited in the past 30 years. It is likely that a pre-emptive strategy using systemic high-dose corticosteroids as early as possible could improve the outcome of aGVHD. Due to the deleterious effects of such treatment particularly in terms of infection risk posed by systemic steroid administration in a population that is already immune-suppressed, it is critical to identify biomarker signatures for approaching this very complex task. Some research groups have begun addressing this issue through molecular and proteomic analyses, combining these approaches with computational intelligence techniques, with the specific aim of facilitating the identification of diagnostic biomarkers in aGVHD. In this review, we focus on the aGVHD scenario and on the more recent state-of-the-art. We also attempt to give an overview of the classical and novel techniques proposed as medical decision support system for the diagnosis of GVHD.

Keywords computational intelligence      gene selection      GVHD      machine learning      personalized modelling      wrapper     
Corresponding Author(s): FIASCHé Maurizio,Email:maurizio.fiasche@unirc.it   
Issue Date: 01 August 2011
 Cite this article:   
Maurizio FIASCHé,Maria CUZZOLA,Giuseppe IRRERA, et al. Advances in medical decision support systems for diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease: molecular and computational intelligence joint approaches[J]. Front Biol, 2011, 6(4): 263-273.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fib/EN/10.1007/s11515-011-1124-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fib/EN/Y2011/V6/I4/263
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Maurizio FIASCHé
Maria CUZZOLA
Giuseppe IRRERA
Pasquale IACOPINO
Francesco Carlo MORABITO
Fig.1  A diagram of personalized modeling-based gene selection method (PMGS).
Fig.2  Three phases of GVHD immuno-pathogenesis.
Gene nameOfficial full nameImmune function
BCL2A1BCL2-related protein A1Anti- and pro-apoptotic regulator.
CASP1°*Caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidaseCentral role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis.
CCL7Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7Substrate of matrix metalloproteinase 2
CD83CD83 moleculeDendritic cells regulation.
CXCL10°Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10Pleiotropic effects, including stimulation of monocytes, natural killer and T cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression.
EGR2°Early growth response 2Transcription factor with three tandem C2H2-type zinc fingers.
FASTNF receptor superfamily, member 6Central role in the physiologic regulation of programmed cell death.
ICOS°*Inducible T cell co-stimulatorPlays an important role in cell-cell signaling, immune responses, and regulation of cell proliferation.
IL4Interleukin 4Immune regulation.
IL10°*Interleukin 10Immune regulation.
SELPSelectin PCorrelation with endothelial cells.
SLPI°Stomatin (EPB72)-like 1Elemental activities such as catalysis.
STAT6Transducer and activator of transcription 6, interleukin-4 inducedRegulation of IL4- mediated biological responses.
Foxp-3*Forkhead box P3Regulatory T cells play important roles in the maintenance control of transplantation tolerance.
CD52°*CD52 antigenB cell activation.
Tab.1  The 13 genes selected from CFS (correlation-based feature selection) with their names and meaning; the 7 genes selected through the wrapper-Na?ve Bayes method () are marked with °; the 5 genes selected with SVM are marked with *
Fig.3  The profile of sample 7 in GVHD data set.
MethodTraining setTest set
CFS-ANN28(29)29(30)
Wrapper-SVM29(29)29(30)
PMGS-na?ve Bayes27(29)29(30)
PMGS-WKNN29(29)29(30)
Tab.2  Experimental results of a CFS with ANN classifier and a wrapper method combined with SVM and of the PMGS with Na?ve Bayes and with WKNN
MethodTest set (Dtst)
CFS-ANN3(7)
Wrapper-SVM4(7)
PMGS-Na?ve Bayes3(7)
PMGS-WKNN4(7)
(i)PMGS- Na?ve Bayes6(7)
(i)PMGS- WKNN6(7)
Tab.3  Experimental results of a CFS with ANN classifier and a wrapper method combined with SVM with PMGS
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