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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (5) : 4
Characteristics of chemical components in PM2.5 at a plateau city, South-west China
Jianwu SHI1(),Xiang DING1,Yue ZHOU1,Ran YOU1,Lu HUANG1,Jiming HAO1,2,Feng XIANG3,Jian YANG4,Ze SHI3,Xinyu HAN1,Ping NING1,*
1. Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3. Yunnan Environmental Monitoring Center, Kunming 650000, China
4. Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center, Kunming 650228, China
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The mass concentrations of PM2.5 were studied at a plateau city.

Seasonal and spatial variation of chemical components in PM2.5 were analyzed.

Primary emissions were the main contributors of PM2.5.

A sampling campaign including summer, autumn and winter of 2014 and spring of 2015 was accomplished to obtain the characteristic of chemical components in PM2.5 at three sites of Kunming, a plateau city in South-west China. Nine kinds of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSI), organic and element carbon (OC and EC) in PM2.5 were analyzed by ion chromatography and thermal optical reflectance method, respectively. Results showed that the average concentrations of total WSI, OC and EC were 22.85±10.95 μg·m−3, 17.83±9.57 μg·m−3 and 5.11±4.29 μg·m−3, respectively. They totally accounted for 53.0% of PM2.5. Secondary organic and inorganic aerosols (SOA and SIA) were also assessed by the minimum ratio of OC/EC, nitrogen and sulfur oxidation ratios. The annual average concentrations of SOA and SIA totally accounted for 28.3% of the PM2.5 concentration. The low proportion suggested the primary emission was the main source of PM2.5 in Kunming. However, secondary pollution in the plateau city should also not be ignorable, due to the appropriate temperature and strong solar radiation, which can promote the atmospheric photochemical reactions.

Keywords PM2.5      Plateau city      Organic carbon      Element carbon      Inorganic ions      Secondary components     
This article is part of themed collection: Understanding the processes of air pollution formation (Responsible Editors: Min SHAO, Shuxiao WANG & Armistead G. RUSSELL)
Corresponding Author(s): Ping NING   
Issue Date: 09 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Jianwu SHI,Xiang DING,Yue ZHOU, et al. Characteristics of chemical components in PM2.5 at a plateau city, South-west China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(5): 4.
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Fig.1  Topography of Kunming and location of sampling sites
Fig.2  Various meteorological factors of Kunming in four seasons
city sample year water-solution ions/%a) ref.
SO42− NO3 NH4+ Cl F Na+ K+ Mg2+ Ca2+
Beijing 2009–2010 10.07 8.37 5.11 1.05 0.43 0.68 0.12 1.19 Zhang et al. [25]
Shanghai 2009 21.99 12.76 1.86 9.62 1.51 1.02 2.23 4.41 Zhu et al. [26]
Shenzhen 2009–2010 16.74 7.47 7.82 3.28 7.49 3.44 0.65 3.93 Gao et al. [27]
Guangzhou 2012–2013 14.77 6.05 11.82 0.43 0.15 1.13 1.58 Lai et al. [28]
Nanjing 2001 14.72 6.72 8.54 1.08 0.16 2.11 2.96 0.12 1.54 Wang et al. [29]
Kunming 2014–2015 9.44 3.76 1.88 0.59 0.42 1.03 2.15 0.38 5.19 this study
Tab.1  Comparison of water-solution ions proportion of PM2.5 between Kunming and other cities
Fig.3  Seasonal variation of nine kinds of water-solution ions in Kunming
Fig.4  Distribution of water-solution ions in different sites of Kunming
season sample site OC/(mg·m−3) EC/(mg·m−3) OC/EC (OC/EC)/min SOC/(mg·m−3) (SOC/OC)/%
spring DR 27.12±6.85a) 5.26±2.02 6.09 4.08 6.55±3.63 24.1
JDM 23.94±5.14 3.93±0.74 5.15 5.04 4.31±3.01 18.2
WM 15.42±3.65 5.36±3.52 1.77 2.79 6.31±3.03 40.9
average 22.14±7.29 5.54±2.85 3.12 1.51 5.82±3.34 25.6
summer DR 11.79±7.38 1.94±0.91 6.08 3.71 4.62±4.98 39.2
JDM 17.95±8.68 3.37±1.56 5.33 4.58 2.79±2.40 15.6
WM 16.24±10.24 1.64±0.31 9.29 4.32 8.17±11.03 53.6
average 14.62±8.52 2.27±1.22 6.44 3.71 5.13±6.77 35.1
autumn DR 13.83±5.62 5.66±3.35 2.44 1.59 4.83±6.19 34.9
JDM 31.81±10.81 9.12±4.79 3.49 2.50 9.01±8.67 28.3
WM 7.38±2.53 0.86±0.62 8.58 3.63 4.24±3.17 57.5
average 17.22±12.02 5.27±4.56 3.27 2.50 7.29±7.51 42.3
winter DR 21.52±6.43 6.57±3.07 3.28 2.75 3.79±2.76 17.6
JDM 31.73±4.04 13.37±5.88 2.37 1.77 8.06±7.81 25.4
WM 13.28±6.56 3.26±2.36 4.67 3.60 3.17±3.24 22.2
average 22.51±9.15 7.67±5.82 2.93 1.77 5.01±5.26 22.3
Tab.2  Average of the concentrations of OC, EC and SOC at three sites in Kunming
Fig.5  Relationship between OC and EC concentration in PM2.5 samples during four seasons in Kunming
Fig.6  Seasonal variation of secondary components in PM2.5
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