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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 230-239
Study on HCl removal for medical waste pyrolysis and combustion using a TG-FTIR analyzer
Hongmei ZHU1,*(),Weiying CHEN2,Xuguang JIANG3,Jianhua YAN3,Yong CHI3
1. College of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2. Hangzhou Boiler Group Co. Ltd., Hangzhou 310021, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310013, China
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Under both pyrolysis and combustion condition, HCl removal efficiency for medical waste with Ca-based additives was semi-quantitatively studied by means of TG-FTIR. Additionally, the difference of HCl removal efficiency for PVC and medical waste was compared. Experimental results showed that: 1) Thermal degradation of medical waste mainly took place in two steps under both pyrolysis and combustion condition; 2) HCl emitted at both two steps and HCl concentration increased with the increased of Cl ratio in the medical waste; 3) for the same additive, HCl concentration decreased with the increased of additives amount, that is to say, HCl removal efficiency of medical waste increased as the increased of Ca/Cl molar ratio. Fourth, when Ca(OH)2 was used as additive, HCl removal efficiency for medical waste combustion was a little higher than that for medical waste pyrolysis, but either CaCO3 or CaO was used as additive, it was just opposite, more specifically, when CaCO3 was used as additive with Ca/Cl=1.3, HCl removal efficiency was 5.49% under pyrolysis condition, but that was only 4.24% under combustion condition. Fifth, under the same Ca/Cl molar ratio, HCl removal efficiency for PVC was higher than that for medical waste under both pyrolysis and combustion condition, more specifically, when Ca(OH)2 was used as additive with Ca/Cl=1, HCl removal efficiency was 64.51% for PVC, but that was only 27.66% for medical waste pyrolysis with 4% Cl under pyrolysis condition.

Keywords pollution      medical waste      pyrolysis      combustion      TG-FTIR      HCl removal     
Corresponding Authors: Hongmei ZHU   
Online First Date: 18 February 2014    Issue Date: 13 February 2015
 Cite this article:   
Hongmei ZHU,Weiying CHEN,Xuguang JIANG, et al. Study on HCl removal for medical waste pyrolysis and combustion using a TG-FTIR analyzer[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2015, 9(2): 230-239.
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Hongmei ZHU
Weiying CHEN
Xuguang JIANG
Jianhua YAN
Yong CHI
Fig.1  HCl concentration at various temperatures under different Cl ratio
item composed of simulative medical waste/% ratio of water containing/%
paper plastic glass gauze organic matter food residue from inpatient from outpatient
average 23.5 7.7 27.4 14.8 20.4 6.2 68.9 44.1
average of water containing 56.4
Tab.1  The composed of simulative medical waste
sample proximate analysis /%
Ma Ab volatiles fixed carbon
PVC 0.26 0.32 91.01 8.41
paper 7.01 3.85 82.43 6.71
PP 0.12 99.88
gauze 6.46 0.19 89.99 3.36
organic matter 6.68 4.54 81.54 7.24
food residue 13.24 0.96 75.00 10.80
Tab.2  Proximate analysis of materials
sample ultimate analysis /% QHHV/(MJ·kg-1)
Cad Had Oad Nad St,ad
PVC 41.55 4.81 52.95(Cl) 0.09 0.02 21.699
paper 45.71 5.96 37.18 0.16 0.13 18.137
PP 81.80 10.00 7.94 0.09 0.05 46.994
gauze 41.93 8.40 42.81 0.18 0.03 15.824
organic matter 53.66 7.96 15.21 11.62 0.33 22.124
food residue 37.25 5.40 41.56 1.48 0.11 14.379
Tab.3  Ultimate analysis of materials
Fig.2  The scheme of experiment apparatus system
Fig.3  HCl emission from medical waste pyrolysis
Fig.4  The absorbance area of HCl from medical waste pyrolysis
Fig.5  TG/DTG for medical waste pyrolysis (Cl=4%)
Fig.6  TG/DTG for medical waste with combustion(Cl=4%)
sample molar Ca/Cl HCl integral value release ratio/% HCl removal efficiency, η /% Caactual/%
medical waste (mw) 0.01511 100 0.00 0.00
mw: CaCO3 1:1.3 0.01428 94.51 5.49 2.11
1:2.6 0.01399 92.59 7.41 1.43
1:3.9 0.01386 91.73 8.27 1.06
mw: CaO 1:1.8 0.01014 67.11 32.89 9.13
1:3.6 0.00833 55.13 44.87 6.23
1:5.4 0.00653 43.22 56.78 5.26
mw: Ca(OH)2 1:1 0.01093 72.34 27.66 13.83
1:2 0.00923 61.09 38.91 9.73
1:3 0.00843 55.79 44.21 7.37
Tab.4  HCl removal efficiency and actual additive utilization for medical waste pyrolysis with 4% Cl under different Ca-based additives
Fig.7  HCl removal efficiency for medical waste pyrolysis
Fig.8  HCl emission for medical waste combustion
Fig.9  HCl removal efficiency and actual additive utilization for medical waste pyrolysis and combustion. (a) CaCO3 when Ca/Cl=1.3, (b) CaO when Ca/Cl=1.8, (c) Ca(OH)2 when Ca/Cl=1.0
Fig.10  HCl removal efficiency and Caactual for PVC pyrolysis and medical waste pyrolysis at certain Ca/Cl. (a) CaCO3 when Ca/Cl=1.3; (b) CaO when Ca/Cl=1.5 for PVC and Ca/Cl=1.8 for medical waste; (c) Ca(OH)2 when Ca/Cl=1.0
Fig.11  HCl removal efficiency for PVC pyrolysis and medical waste pyrolysis at different Ca/Cl
ni moles, mol
Pi gas partial pressure, atm
Xi mole fraction, dimensionless
γi activity coefficient, dimensionless
g i 0 standard molar Gibbs energy, KJ·mol-1
R universal gas constant, 8.314 J·(mol·K)-1
c the integral absorbance, cm-1
ν ? the wavenumber selected for the measurement, cm-1
A ( ν ? ) the measured absorbance under ν ? , dimensionless
D integral of c with respect to time, cm-1·s
t time, s
n ( ν ? ) the total amount of the compound of interest evolved during the (t0,t1), mol
K scale coefficient, mol·cm·s-1
c ( ν ? ) absorbance under wavenumber ν ? , dimensionless
η HCl removal efficiency, %
Caactual actual additive utilization, %
( C a C l ) a c u t a l actual Ca/Cl molar ratio, dimensionless
( C a C l ) s t o i the stoichiometric Ca/Cl molar ratio, dimensionless
Tab.5  Symbols:
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