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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (5) : 84
Remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic chemicals using stabilized nanoparticles: Lessons from the past two decades
Zhengqing Cai1,2, Xiao Zhao3, Jun Duan4, Dongye Zhao4(), Zhi Dang5, Zhang Lin5
1. National Engineering Lab for High-concentration Refractory Organic Wastewater, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
2. Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
3. College of Water Resources & Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
4. Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
5. School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
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▪ Overviewed evolution and environmental applications of stabilized nanoparticles.

▪ Reviewed theories on particle stabilization for enhanced reactivity/deliverability.

▪ Examined various in situ remediation technologies based on stabilized nanoparticles.

▪ Summarized knowledge on transport of stabilized nanoparticles in porous media.

▪ Identified key knowledge gaps and future research needs on stabilized nanoparticles.

Due to improved soil deliverability and high reactivity, stabilized nanoparticles have been studied for nearly two decades for in situ remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic pollutants. While large amounts of bench- and field-scale experimental data have demonstrated the potential of the innovative technology, extensive research results have also unveiled various merits and constraints associated different soil characteristics, types of nanoparticles and particle stabilization techniques. Overall, this work aims to critically overview the fundamental principles on particle stabilization, and the evolution and some recent developments of stabilized nanoparticles for degradation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The specific objectives are to: 1) overview fundamental mechanisms in nanoparticle stabilization; 2) summarize key applications of stabilized nanoparticles for in situ remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by legacy and emerging organic chemicals; 3) update the latest knowledge on the transport and fate of stabilized nanoparticles; 4) examine the merits and constraints of stabilized nanoparticles in environmental remediation applications; and 5) identify the knowledge gaps and future research needs pertaining to stabilized nanoparticles for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. Per instructions of this invited special issue, this review is focused on contributions from our group (one of the pioneers in the subject field), which, however, is supplemented by important relevant works by others. The knowledge gained is expected to further advance the science and technology in the environmental applications of stabilized nanoparticles.

Keywords Stabilized nanoparticle      In-situ remediation      Organic contaminant      Soil remediation      Groundwater      Fate and transport     
This article is part of themed collection: Accounts of Aquatic Chemistry and Technology Research (Responsible Editors: Jinyong Liu, Haoran Wei & Yin Wang)
Corresponding Author(s): Dongye Zhao   
Issue Date: 19 June 2020
 Cite this article:   
Zhengqing Cai,Xiao Zhao,Jun Duan, et al. Remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic chemicals using stabilized nanoparticles: Lessons from the past two decades[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(5): 84.
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Zhengqing Cai
Xiao Zhao
Jun Duan
Dongye Zhao
Zhi Dang
Zhang Lin
Fig.1  Schematic description of in situ remediation of TCE/PCBs and nitrobenzene by directly delivering stabilized nZVI into contaminated source zone.
Fig.2  Conceptualized illustration of nanoparticle aggregation and stabilization.
Fig.3  Effects of stabilizers on interactions between nanoparticles and target contaminants.
Fig.4  Mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE by ZVI-based bimetallic nanomaterials (a) or sulfidated ZVI (b) (He et al., 2018).
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