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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (5) : 80     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1259-4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Toxicity-oriented water quality engineering
Shengkun Dong1,2(), Chenyue Yin1,2, Xiaohong Chen1,2
1. Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Water Security Regulation and Control for Southern China, Guangzhou 510275, China
2. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Water Security in Southern China of Guangdong Higher Education Institute, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
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Abstract

• Toxicity-oriented water quality monitoring was proposed.

• Toxicity-oriented water quality engineering control was proposed.

• Future issues to the proposition were discussed.

The fundamental goal of water quality engineering is to ensure water safety to humans and the environment. Traditional water quality engineering consists of monitoring, evaluation, and control of key water quality parameters. This approach provides some vital insights into water quality, however, most of these parameters do not account for pollutant mixtures – a reality that terminal water users face, nor do most of these parameters have a direct connection with the human health safety of waters. This puts the real health-specific effects of targeted water pollutant monitoring and engineering control in question. To focus our attention to one of the original goals of water quality engineering – human health and environmental protection, we advocate here the toxicity-oriented water quality monitoring and control. This article presents some of our efforts toward such goal. Specifically, complementary to traditional water quality parameters, we evaluated the water toxicity using high sensitivity toxicological endpoints, and subsequently investigated the performance of some of the water treatment strategies in modulating the water toxicity. Moreover, we implemented the toxicity concept into existing water treatment design theory to facilitate toxicity-oriented water quality control designs. Suggestions for the next steps are also discussed. We hope our work will intrigue water quality scientists and engineers to improve and embrace the mixture water pollutant and toxicological evaluation and engineering control.

Keywords Water      Wastewater      Mixture      Toxicity      Monitor      Control     
This article is part of themed collection: Accounts of Aquatic Chemistry and Technology Research (Responsible Editors: Jinyong Liu, Haoran Wei & Yin Wang)
Corresponding Author(s): Shengkun Dong   
Issue Date: 15 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Shengkun Dong,Chenyue Yin,Xiaohong Chen. Toxicity-oriented water quality engineering[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(5): 80.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-020-1259-4
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2020/V14/I5/80
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Fig.1  Examples of the proposed toxicity-oriented water quality monitoring on the selected wide variety of waters that we investigated. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity to the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. NS, no significant difference from the negative control; NA, not available; 2nd effluent, secondary effluent.
Fig.2  Demonstration of the proposed toxicity-oriented water quality control effort on the selected wide variety of waters that we investigated. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity to the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Red (increased toxicity after intervention) and green (decreased toxicity after intervention) arrows in the dashed box show modulation of toxicity post various engineering treatments. Error bars stand for the standard error of the mean. NS, no significant difference from the negative control; NA, not available; AnMBR, Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor; 2nd effluent, secondary effluent.
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