Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 72     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1251-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Utilizing transparent and conductive SnO2 as electron mediator to enhance the photocatalytic performance of Z-scheme Si-SnO2-TiOx
Jing Gu1, Hongtao Yu1, Xie Quan1(), Shuo Chen1, Junfeng Niu2
1. Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
Download: PDF(4213 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

• A novel Z-scheme Si-SnO2-TiOx with SnO2 as electron mediator is first constructed.

• Transparent and conductive SnO2 can pass light through and promote charge transport.

• VO from SnO2 and TiOx improve photoelectrochemical performances.

• Efficient photocatalytic degradations originate from the Z scheme construction.

Z-scheme photocatalysts, with strong redox ability, have a great potential for pollutants degradation. However, it is challenging to construct efficient Z-scheme photocatalysts because of their poor interfacial charge separation. Herein, by employing transparent and conductive SnO2 as electron mediator to pass light through and promote interfacial charge transportation, a novel Z-scheme photocatalyst Si-SnO2-TiOx (1<x<2) was constructed. The Z-scheme photocatalyst displayed an order of magnitude higher photocurrent density and a 4-fold increase in open-circuit potential compared to those of Si. Moreover, the onset potential shifted negatively for approximately 2.2 V. Benefiting from these advantages, this Z-scheme Si-SnO2-TiOx exhibited efficient photocatalytic performance toward phenol degradation and mineralization. 75% of the phenol was degraded without bias potential and 70% of the TOC was removed during phenol degradation. Other typical pollutants such as bisphenol A and atrazine could also be degraded without bias potential. Introducing a transparent and conductive electron mediator to construct Z-scheme photocatalyst gives a new sight to the improvement of photocatalytic performance in Z scheme.

Keywords Z-scheme photocatalyst      Tin oxide      Electron mediator      Organic pollutant     
Corresponding Author(s): Xie Quan   
Just Accepted Date: 07 April 2020   Issue Date: 08 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Jing Gu,Hongtao Yu,Xie Quan, et al. Utilizing transparent and conductive SnO2 as electron mediator to enhance the photocatalytic performance of Z-scheme Si-SnO2-TiOx[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 72.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-020-1251-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2020/V14/I4/72
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Jing Gu
Hongtao Yu
Xie Quan
Shuo Chen
Junfeng Niu
Fig.1  SEM images of Si-SnO2 ((a) surface and (b) profile) and Si-SnO2-TiOx ((c) profile), (d) EDS spectrum and element mapping of (e) Si, (f) Sn, (g) Ti and (h) O.
Fig.2  (a) XRD patterns of Si-SnO2-TiOx, Si-SnO2 and Si (Insert is the full figure), (b) I-V relation of Si-SnO2 measured by four-point probe, (c) DRS and (d) ESR curves of the samples.
Fig.3  XPS spectra of Sn 3d ((a) surface, (b) etched for 30 s, (c) etched for 240 s) and O 1p ((d) surface, (e) etched for 30 s, (f) etched for 240 s) valence states of Si-SnO2 and XPS spectra of Ti 2p ((g) surface, (h) etched for 30 s, (i) etched for 240 s) and O 1p ((j) surface, (k) etched for 30 s, (l) etched for 240 s) valence states of Si-SnO2-TiOx.
Fig.4  Chopped photocurrent responses of (a) Si under UV/vis light, (b) Si, Si-TiOx and Si-SnO2-TiOx under UV/vis light, (c) Si-SnO2-TiOx under UV/vis and visible light and (d) CV tests of the as-prepared samples and (e) Photocurrent responses and (f) PL emission of the samples
Fig.5  (a) Phenol degradation at different potentials and (b) phenol degradation at zero potential with or without scavengers, (c–d) kinetic curves of the degradation process, (e) schematic diagram of degradation mechanism and (f) TOC removal at zero potential.
Fig.6  Schematic diagram of band position analysis of the components
1 M R Abukhadra, M Shaban, M A Abd El Samad (2018). Enhanced photocatalytic removal of Safranin-T dye under sunlight within minute time intervals using heulandite/polyaniline@nickel oxide composite as a novel photocatalyst. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 162: 261–271
2 R Acosta-Herazo, M Mueses, G L Puma, F Machuca-Martínez (2019). Impact of photocatalyst optical properties on the efficiency of solar photocatalytic reactors rationalized by the concepts of initial rate of photon absorption (IRPA) dimensionless boundary layer of photon absorption and apparent optical thickness. Chemical Engineering Journal, 356: 839–849
3 S Bai, X Li, Q Kong, R Long, C Wang, J Jiang, Y Xiong (2015). Toward enhanced photocatalytic oxygen evolution: synergetic utilization of plasmonic effect and schottky junction via interfacing facet selection. Advanced Materials, 27(22): 3444–3452
4 P D Batista, M Mulato, C F D O Graeff, F J R Fernandez, F D C Marques (2006). SnO2 extended gate field-effect transistor as pH sensor. Brazilian Journal of Physics, 36: 478–481
5 Y Berencén, S Prucnal, F Liu, I Skorupa, R Hübner, L Rebohle, S Zhou, H Schneider, M Helm, W Skorupa (2017). Room-temperature short-wavelength infrared Si photodetector. Scientific Reports, 7: 43688
6 S A Chambers, Y Liang, Z Yu, R Droopad, J Ramdani, K Eisenbeiser (2000). Band discontinuities at epitaxial SrTiO3/Si(001) heterojunctions. Applied Physics Letters, 77(11): 1662–1664
7 A Chinnappan, J K Y Lee, W A D M Jayathilaka, S Ramakrishna (2018). Fabrication of MWCNT/Cu nanofibers via electrospinning method and analysis of their electrical conductivity by four-probe method. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 43(2): 721–729
8 C Dette, M A Pérez-Osorio, C S Kley, P Punke, C E Patrick, P Jacobson, F Giustino, S J Jung, K J Kern (2014). TiO2 anatase with a bandgap in the visible region. Nano Letters, 14(11): 6533–6538
9 B Fu, Z Zhang (2018). Periodical 2D photonic-plasmonic Au/TiOx nanocavity resonators for photoelectrochemical applications. Small, 14(20): 1703610
10 A Ghanbari-Siahkali, S Mitra, P Kingshott, K Almdal, C Bloch, H K Rehmeier (2005). Investigation of the hydrothermal stability of cross-linked liquid silicone rubber (LSR). Polymer Degradation & Stability, 90(3): 471–480
11 K G Godinho, A Walsh, G W Watson (2009). Energetic and electronic structure analysis of intrinsic defects in SnO2. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113(1): 439–448
12 P Gong, J Xie, D Fang, X Liu, F He, F Li (2019). Novel heterogeneous denitrification catalyst over a wide temperature range: Synergy between CeO2, ZrO2 and TiO2. Chemical Engineering Journal, 356: 598–608
13 X Gong, S Su, B Liu, L Wang, W Wang, Y Yang, E Kong, B Cheng, G Han, Y Yeo (2012). Towards high performance Ge1–xSnx and In0.7Ga0.3As CMOS: A novel common gate stack featuring sub-400°C Si2H6 passivation, single TaN metal gate, and sub-1.3 nm EOT. 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), 99–100
14 J Gu, H Yu, X Quan, S Chen (2017). Covering a-Fe2O3 protection layer on the surface of p-Si micropillar array for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 11(6): 13
15 Z Guo, D K Panda, K Maity, D Lindsey, T G Parker, T E Albrecht-Schmitt, J L Barreda-Esparza, P Xiong, W Zhou, S Saha (2016). Modulating the electrical conductivity of metal-organic framework films with intercalated guest p-systems. Journal of Materials Chemistry. C, Materials for Optical and Electronic Devices, 4(5): 894–899
16 Y He, L Zhang, M Fan, X Wang, M L Walbridge, Q Nong, Y Wu, L Zhao (2015). Z-scheme SnO2–x/g-C3N4 composite as an efficient photocatalyst for dye degradation and photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 137: 175–184
17 H Hosono, D C Paine (2010). Handbook of Transparent Conductors. Springer Science & Business Media
18 H Hosono, K Ueda (2017). Transparent Conductive Oxides. In: Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials. Kasap S, Capper P, eds. New York: Springer International Publishing, 1–3
19 Y J Hwang, A Boukai, P D Yang (2009). High density n-Si/n-TiO2 core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photoactivity. Nano Letters, 9(1): 410–415
20 Z Jiang, W Wan, H Li, S Yuan, H Zhao, P K Wong (2018). A hierarchical Z-Scheme a-Fe2O3/g-C3N4 hybrid for enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Advanced Materials, 30(10): 1706108
21 J Jin, J Yu, D Guo, C Cui, W Ho (2015). A hierarchical Z-Scheme CdS-WO3 photocatalyst with enhanced CO2 reduction activity. Small, 11(39): 5262–5271
22 H J Joyce, J L Boland, C L Davies, S A Baig, M B Johnston (2016). A review of the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires: insights gained from terahertz conductivity spectroscopy. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 31(10): 103003
23 C Kilic, A Zunger (2002). Origins of coexistence of conductivity and transparency in SnO2. Physical Review Letters, 88(9): 095501
24 T Krishnakumar, R Jayaprakash, V N Singh, B R Mehta, A R Phani (2009). Synthesis and characterization of tin oxide nanoparticle for humidity sensor applications. Journal of Nano Research, 4: 91–101
25 H Liu, V Avrutin, N Izyumskaya, Ü Özgür, H J S Morkoç (2010). Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices. Superlattices and Microstructures, 48(5): 458–484
26 Y Liu, G Ji, M A Dastageer, L Zhu, J Wang, B Zhang, X Chang, M A Gondal (2014). Highly-active direct Z-scheme Si/TiO2 photocatalyst for boosted CO2 reduction into value-added methanol. RSC Advances, 4(100): 56961–56969
27 J C Manifacier, M De Murcia, J P Fillard, E Vicario (1977). Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films in relation to their stoichiometric deviation and their crystalline structure. Thin Solid Films, 41(2): 127–135
28 J Ni, X Zhao, X Zheng, J Zhao, B Liu (2009). Electrical, structural, photoluminescence and optical properties of p-type conducting, antimony-doped SnO2 thin films. Acta Materialia, 57(1): 278–285
29 M K Nowotny, L R Sheppard, T Bak, J Nowotny (2008). Defect chemistry of titanium dioxide: Application of defect engineering in processing of TiO2-based photocatalysts. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(14): 5275–5300
30 X Pan, Y J Xu (2013). Defect-mediated growth of noble-metal (Ag, Pt, and Pd) nanoparticles on TiO2 with oxygen vacancies for hotocatalytic redox reactions under visible light. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(35): 17996–18005
31 X Pan, M Q Yang, X Fu, N Zhang, Y Xu (2013). Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: Synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications. Nanoscale, 5(9): 3601–3614
32 B E Park, H Ishiwara (2003). Formation of LaAlO3 films on Si(100) substrates using molecular beam deposition. Applied Physics Letters, 82(8): 1197–1199
33 S C Pillai, P Periyat, R George, D E Mccormack, M K Seery, H Hayden, J Colreavy, D Corr, S J Hinder (2007). Synthesis of high-temperature stable anatase TiO2 photocatalyst. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111(4): 1605–1611
34 B Qiu, Q Zhu, M Du, L Fan, M Xing, J Zhang (2017). Efficient solar light harvesting CdS/Co9S8 hollow cubes for Z-Scheme photocatalytic water splitting. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 56(10): 2684–2688
35 K Rajpure, M Kusumade, M N Neumann-Spallart, C Bhosale (2000). Effect of Sb doping on properties of conductive spray deposited SnO2 thin films. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 64(3): 184–188
36 M Shaban, A M Ashraf, M R Abukhadra (2018). TiO2 nanoribbons/carbon nanotubes composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity; fabrication, characterization, and application. Scientific Reports, 8(1): 781
37 B Stjerna, C G Granqvist, A Seidel, L Häggström (1990). Characterization of rf-sputtered SnOx thin films by electron microscopy, hall-effect measurement, and mössbauer spectrometry. Journal of Applied Physics, 68(12): 6241–6245
38 N C Strandwitz, D J Comstock, R L Grimm, A C Nichols-Nielander, J Elam, N S Lewis (2013). Photoelectrochemical behavior of n-type Si(100) electrodes coated with thin films of manganese oxide grown by atomic layer deposition. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(10): 4931–4936
39 J Su, H Yu, X Quan, S Chen, H Wang (2013). Hierarchically porous silicon with significantly improved photocatalytic oxidation capability for phenol degradation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 138: 427–433
40 S Takabayashi, R Nakamura, Y Nakato (2004). A nano-modified Si/TiO2 composite electrode for efficient solar water splitting. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A Chemistry, 166(1–3): 107–113
41 H Wang, K Dou, W Y Teoh, Y Zhan, T F Hung, F Zhang, J Xu, R Zhang, A L Rogach (2013). Engineering of facets, band structure, and gas-sensing properties of hierarchical Sn2+-doped SnO2 nanostructures. Advanced Functional Materials, 23(38): 4847–4853
42 J Wang, P Liu, X Fu, Z Li, W Han, X Wang (2008). Relationship between oxygen defects and the photocatalytic property of ZnO nanocrystals in nafion membranes. Langmuir, 25(2): 1218–1223
43 R M Watwe, R D Cortright, M Mavrikakis, J K Nørskov, J Dumesic (2001). Density functional theory studies of the adsorption of ethylene and oxygen on Pt(111) and Pt3Sn(111). Journal of Chemical Physics, 114(10): 4663–4668
44 X Xing, M Zhang, L Hou, L Xiao, Q Li, J Yang (2017). Z-scheme BCN-TiO2 nanocomposites with oxygen vacancy for high efficiency visible light driven hydrogen production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(47): 28434–28444
45 O Yamamoto, T Sasamoto, M Inagaki (1992). Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by thermal decomposition of ethylene glycol solution. Journal of Materials Research, 7(9): 2488–2491
46 J Yang, Y Guo, R Jiang, F Qin, H Zhang, W Lu, J Wang, J Yu (2018). High-efficiency “working-in-tandem” nitrogen photofixation achieved by assembling plasmonic gold nanocrystals on ultrathin titania nanosheets. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 140(27): 8497–8508
47 S Yang, L Gao (2006). Facile and surfactant-free route to nanocrystalline mesoporous tin oxide. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 89(5): 1742–1744
48 P Yue, G Zhang, X Cao, B Wang, Y Zhang, Y Wei (2019). In situ synthesis of Z-scheme BiPO4/BiOCl0.9I0.1 heterostructure with multiple vacancies and valence for efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant. Separation and Purification Technology, 213: 34–44
49 D Zhang, L Tao, Z Deng, J Zhang, L Chen (2006). Surface morphologies and properties of pure and antimony-doped tin oxide films derived by sol-gel dip-coating processing. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 100(2): 275–280
[1] FSE-20033-OF-GJ_suppl_1 Download
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Weichuan Qiao, Rong Li, Tianhao Tang, Achuo Anitta Zuh. Removal, distribution and plant uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a simulated constructed wetland system[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 20-.
[2] Xinyi Hu, Ting Yang, Chen Liu, Jun Jin, Bingli Gao, Xuejun Wang, Min Qi, Baokai Wei, Yuyu Zhan, Tan Chen, Hongtao Wang, Yanting Liu, Dongrui Bai, Zhu Rao, Nan Zhan. Distribution of aromatic amines, phenols, chlorobenzenes, and naphthalenes in the surface sediment of the Dianchi Lake, China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 66-.
[3] Xinjie Wang, Yang Li, Jian Zhao, Hong Yao, Siqi Chu, Zimu Song, Zongxian He, Wen Zhang. Magnetotactic bacteria: Characteristics and environmental applications[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 56-.
[4] Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas, Eyup Debik. Dechlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles: Comparison with nZVI, degradation mechanism, and pathways[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(1): 17-.
[5] Hang Zhang, Shuo Chen, Haiguang Zhang, Xinfei Fan, Cong Gao, Hongtao Yu, Xie Quan. Carbon nanotubes-incorporated MIL-88B-Fe as highly efficient Fenton-like catalyst for degradation of organic pollutants[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(2): 18-.
[6] Qing ZHANG. Predictive models on photolysis and photoinduced toxicity of persistent organic chemicals[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2013, 7(6): 803-814.
[7] Hongliang JIA, Liyan LIU, Yeqing SUN, Daoji CAI, Jianxin HU, Nanqi REN, Yifan LI. Endosulfan in the Chinese environment: monitoring and modeling[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2012, 6(1): 32-44.
[8] Bin WANG, Jun HUANG, Shubo DENG, Xiaoling YANG, Gang YU. Addressing the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants in China[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2012, 6(1): 2-16.
[9] LIU Zhenyu, YANG Fenglin, QUAN Xie, ZHANG Xiaohong. Dynamic fate modeling of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in the lower reaches of the Liao River[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2007, 1(2): 166-171.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed