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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (4) : 56     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1235-z
REVIEW ARTICLE
Magnetotactic bacteria: Characteristics and environmental applications
Xinjie Wang1, Yang Li1,2(), Jian Zhao1, Hong Yao3, Siqi Chu3, Zimu Song3, Zongxian He3, Wen Zhang2()
1. State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2. John A. Reif, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
3. Beijing Key Laboratory of Aqueous Typical Pollutants Control and Water Quality Safeguard, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology on Antibiotics/ Resistance Genes Water Environmental Pollution Control Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
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Abstract

• Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetic nanoparticle within magnetosomes.

• The morphologic and phylogenetic diversity of MTB were summarized.

• Isolation and mass cultivation of MTB deserve extensive research for applications.

• MTB can remove heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic pollutants from wastewater.

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of Gram-negative prokaryotes that respond to the geomagnetic field. This unique property is attributed to the intracellular magnetosomes, which contains membrane-bound nanocrystals of magnetic iron minerals. This review summarizes the most recent advances in MTB, magnetosomes, and their potential applications especially the environmental pollutant control or remediation. The morphologic and phylogenetic diversity of MTB were first introduced, followed by a critical review of isolation and cultivation methods. Past research has devoted to optimize the factors, such as oxygen, carbon source, nitrogen source, nutrient broth, iron source, and mineral elements for the growth of MTB. Besides the applications of MTB in modern biological and medical fields, little attention was made on the environmental applications of MTB for wastewater treatment, which has been summarized in this review. For example, applications of MTB as adsorbents have resulted in a novel magnetic separation technology for removal of heavy metals or organic pollutants in wastewater. In addition, we summarized the current advance on pathogen removal and detection of endocrine disruptor which can inspire new insights toward sustainable engineering and practices. Finally, the new perspectives and possible directions for future studies are recommended, such as isolation of MTB, genetic modification of MTB for mass production and new environmental applications. The ultimate objective of this review is to promote the applications of MTB and magnetosomes in the environmental fields.

Keywords Magnetotactic bacteria      Magnetosome      Heavy metal      Radionuclide      Organic pollutants     
Corresponding Author(s): Yang Li,Wen Zhang   
Issue Date: 01 April 2020
 Cite this article:   
Xinjie Wang,Yang Li,Jian Zhao, et al. Magnetotactic bacteria: Characteristics and environmental applications[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 56.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-020-1235-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2020/V14/I4/56
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Xinjie Wang
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Fig.1  Typical structure of a magnetotatic bacterium.
Fig.2  The principle of orientation magnetic separation method in a channel separator. Graph was regenerated based on ref. (Bahaj et al., 2002) with modifications.
Fig.3  Hypothesized mechanism of magnetite biomineralization. Graph was cited and reproduced from ref. (Yan et al., 2012) with permission and minor modifications.
Fig.4  Role of the proteins in the magnetite biomineralization and chain formation. Graph was cited and reproduced from ref. (Faivre and Schuler, 2008) with permission. MM represents magnetosome membrane, MC represents cytoplasmic membrane.
Heavy metals Strain Initial metal concentration Wet biomass weight Time pH Removal efficiency Ref.
Au3+ Stenotrophomonas sp. 80 mg/L 10 g/L 60 min 1.0–5.5 100% Song et al. (2008)
M. magneticum AMB-1 2×107 mol/L
4×107 mol/L
1.5×108 cells/mL 7 days 100%
100%
Tanaka et al. (2009)
M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 80 mg/L 10 g/L 60 min 2.5 Cai et al. (2011)
Cr6+ MTB 34.64 mg/L 44 g/L 60 min 6.0 80% Qu et al. (2014)
21.51 mg/L 100 g/L 30 min 6.0 68% Qu et al. (2014)
MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Cd2+ M. magneticum AMB-1 1×104 mol/L 1×108 cells/mL 24 h 7.4 3.8 × 106 molecules per cell Tanaka et al. (2008)
Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1 1.3 mg/L 6.9×107 cells/mL 240 h 7.0 58.0% Arakaki et al. (2002)
Hg2+ M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 2.5×107 mol/L 250 mg/L biogenic magnetite 120 min 13.53% Liu and Wiatrowski (2018)
M. magnetotacticum MS-1 2.5×107 mol/L 250 mg/L biogenic magnetite 120 min 8.55% Liu and Wiatrowski (2018)
Cu2+ M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 80 mg/L 10 g/L 60 min 5.0 62.23% Wang et al. (2011)
MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Cr3+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Fe3+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Fe2+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Ni2+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 96.20% Wang and Sun (2005)
Mn2+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 50.75% Wang and Sun (2005)
Pb2+ MTB 40 mg/L 80 g/L 60 min 6.0–7.0 100% Wang and Sun (2005)
Co2+ Alphapro- teobacterium MTB-KTN90 115 mg/L 0.015 g/L of dry biomass 60 min 7.0 88.55% Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini et al. (2016)
Ag+ M. gryphiswaldense MSR-1 80 mg/L 10 g/L 60 min 4.0 91.26% Wang et al. (2011)
Mixture of Au3+ and Cu2+ MTB Au3+ (80 mg/L) 10 g/L 10 min 1.0–5.5 99.53%–100% Song et al. (2007)
Cu2+ (80 mg/L) 10 g/L 10 min 2.0–4.5 98.07%–98.75% Song et al. (2007)
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