Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (6) : 14
Competition for electrons between reductive dechlorination and denitrification
Lifeng Cao1, Weihua Sun1(), Yuting Zhang1, Shimin Feng1, Jinyun Dong1, Yongming Zhang1, Bruce E. Rittmann2
1. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
2. Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701, USA
Download: PDF(539 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

Simultaneous reductive dechlorination and denitrification occurred simultaneously in VBBR.

The mechanism of the mutual inhibition between TCP and nitrate or nitrite was identified clearly.

Declorination was more sensitive to competitive inhibition than either denitrification.

Nitrite had a smaller inhibitory impact on TCP reduction than nitrate.

Both reactions proceed more rapidly if the oxidized nitrogen is nitrite instead of nitrate.

All reactions could be accelerated by exogenous electron donors, and especially for TCP reduction.

It is common that 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) coexists with nitrate or nitrite in industrial wastewaters. In this work, simultaneous reductive dechlorination of TCP and denitrification of nitrate or nitrite competed for electron donor, which led to their mutual inhibition. All inhibitions could be relieved to a certain degree by augmenting an organic electron donor, but the impact of the added electron donor was strongest for TCP. For simultaneous reduction of TCP together with nitrate, TCP’s removal rate value increased 75% and 150%, respectively, when added glucose was increased from 0.4 mmol·L–1 to 0.5 mmol·L–1 and to 0.76 mmol·L–1. For comparison, the removal rate for nitrate increased by only 25% and 114% for the same added glucose. The relationship between their initial biodegradation rates versus their initial concentrations could be represented well with the Monod model, which quantified their half-maximum-rate concentration (KS value), and KS values for TCP, nitrate, and nitrite were larger with simultaneous reduction than independent reduction. The increases in KS are further evidence that competition for the electron donor led to mutual inhibition. For bioremediation of wastewater containing TCP and oxidized nitrogen, both reduction reactions should proceed more rapidly if the oxidized nitrogen is nitrite instead of nitrate and if readily biodegradable electron acceptor is augmented.

Keywords Competition for electrons      Denitrification      Reductive dechlorination      Bioremediation      Nitrate      2      4      6-trichlorophenol     
Corresponding Author(s): Weihua Sun,Yongming Zhang   
Issue Date: 16 June 2017
 Cite this article:   
Lifeng Cao,Weihua Sun,Yuting Zhang, et al. Competition for electrons between reductive dechlorination and denitrification[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2017, 11(6): 14.
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Lifeng Cao
Weihua Sun
Yuting Zhang
Shimin Feng
Jinyun Dong
Yongming Zhang
Bruce E. Rittmann
Fig.1  TCP biodegradation pathway based on McFall et al. [24], Louie et al. [25], Annachhatre and Gheewala [26], Wang et al. [27], Bock et al. [28], and Snyder et al. [29]. The initial three steps are reductive dechlorinations that require 2H. Phenol undergoes sequential mono-oxygenation to produce catechol and maleic acid semi-aldehyde. Subsequent hydroxylations and dehydrogenations of muconic acid yield 22H
Fig.2  Diagrammatic sketch of the vertical baffled bioreactor (VBBR)
Fig.3  Independent biological reductions of TCP, nitrate, and nitrite with 0.5 mmol?L–1 glucose added. In this figure, (E) symbols mean experimental values and are the averages of two parallel runs; (C) lines mean calculated values based on the indicated best-fit k values (units of mmol?L–1h–1) of zero-order kinetics for TCP, and k values (units of h–1) of first-order kinetics for nitrate and nitrite. Error bars indicate the range of concentrations for duplicate experiments
Fig.4  Generation of TCP intermediates in parallel to TCP loss. Sum is the addition of the mmol?L–1 concentrations of TCP, DCP, MCP, and phenol. Error bars indicate the range of concentrations for duplicate experiments
Fig.5  Simultaneous reductions of nitrate and TCP with different concentration of glucose added; the residual soluble COD was less than 10 mg?L–1. In this figure, (E) symbols mean experimental values and are the averages of two parallel runs; (C) lines mean calculated values based on the indicated best-fit k values (units of mmol?L–1?h–1) of zero-order kinetics for TCP, and k values (units of h–1) of first-order kinetics for nitrate. Error bars indicate the range of concentrations for duplicate experiments.
Fig.6  Simultaneous reductions of nitrite and TCP with different concentration of glucose added; the residual soluble COD was less than 10 mg?L–1. In this figure, (E) symbols mean experimental values and are the averages of two parallel runs; (C) lines mean calculated values based on the indicated best-fit k values (units of mmol?L–1?h–1) of zero-order kinetics for TCP, and k values (units of h–1) of first-order kinetics for nitrite. Error bars indicate the range of concentrations for duplicate experiments
Fig.7  Comparison of removal-rate constants for nitrate, nitrite, and TCP for independent and simultaneous biodegradation experiments. Nitrate and nitrite have first-order kinetics with units of h–1, and TCP has zero-order kinetics with unit of mmol?L–1?h–1. The top panel shows the impacts of nitrate and nitrite on the k value for TCP; not the different scale for TCP alone. The bottom panel shows the impacts of TCP on k values of nitrate and nitrite
Fig.8  Relationship between initial TCP, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations with their initial removal rates (average values for the interval of 10 to 20 min) corresponding to independent or simultaneous biodegradation. In this figure, (E) symbols mean experimental values and are the averages of two parallel runs; (C) lines mean calculated values based on Monod model. Error bars indicate the range of concentrations for duplicate experiments
1 LiX, ManderÜ, MaZ, JiaY. Water quality problems and potential for wetlands as treatment systems in the Yangtze River Delta. China.Wetlands, 2010, 29(4): 1125–1132
2 RenY, XuZ, ZhangX, WangX, SunX D J, BallantineD J, WangS. Nitrogen pollution and source identification of urban ecosystem surface water in Beijing.Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2014, 8(1): 106–116
3 YuanX, GaoD. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and process control in aerobic granular sludge reactor.Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, 178(1-3): 1041–1045 pmid: 20219282
4 BlackburneR, YuanZ, KellerJ. Partial nitrification to nitrite using low dissolved oxygen concentration as the main selection factor.Biodegradation, 2008, 19(2): 303–312 pmid: 17611802
5 ZhangL, ZhangC, HuC, LiuH, BaiY, QuJ. Sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification corresponding to different electron donors and microbial profiling in anoxic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactors.Water Research, 2015, 85: 422–431 pmid: 26364226
6 WanT, ZhangG, DuF, HeJ, WuP. Combined biologic aerated filter and sulfur/ceramisite autotrophic denitrification for advanced wastewater nitrogen removal at low temperatures.Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2014, 8(6): 967–972
7 LvY, ChenX, WangL, JuK, ChenX, MiaoR, WangX. Microprofiles of activated sludge aggregates using microelectrodes in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) reactor.Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2016, 10(2): 390–398
8 RittmannE B, McCartyP L. Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. Boston, McGraw-Hill, 2001
9 MaB, WangS, ZhuG, GeS, WangJ, RenN, PengY. Denitrification and phosphorus uptake by DPAOs using nitrite as an electron acceptor by step-feed strategies.Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2013, 7(2): 267–272 doi:10.1007/s11783-012-0439-2
10 FengC, HuangL, YuH, YiX, WeiC. Simultaneous phenol removal, nitrification and denitrification using microbial fuel cell technology.Water Research, 2015, 76: 160–170 pmid: 25813490
11 JemaatZ, Suárez-OjedaM E, PérezJ, CarreraJ. Simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol removal using aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.Bioresource Technology, 2013, 150(3): 307–313 pmid: 24177164
12 YanN, WangL, ChangL, ZhangC, ZhouY, ZhangY, RittmannB E. Coupled aerobic and anoxic biodegradation for quinoline and nitrogen removals.Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2015, 9(4): 738–744
13 EkerS, KargiF. Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) containing wastewater in a hybrid bioreactor system with effluent recycle.Journal of Environmental Management, 2009, 90(2): 692–698 pmid: 18276060
14 AndreoniV, BaggiG, ColomboM, CavalcaL, ZangrossiM, BernasconiS. Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by a specialized organism and by indigenous soil microflora: bioaugmentation and self-remediability for soil restoration.Letters in Applied Microbiology, 1998, 27(2): 86–92 pmid: 9750329
15 DiezM C, CastilloG, AguilarL, VidalG, MoraM L. Operational factors and nutrient effects on activated sludge treatment of Pinus radiata kraft mill wastewater.Bioresource Technology, 2002, 83(2): 131–138 pmid: 12056488
16 HameedB H. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol adsorption onto activated clay.Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2007, 307(1–3): 45–52
17 PodkościelnyP, DabrowskiA, MarijukO V. Heterogeneity of active carbons in adsorption of phenol aqueous solutions.Applied Surface Science, 2003, 205(1–4): 297–303 doi:10.1016/S0169-4332(02)01154-6
18 GaoJ, LiuL, LiuX, ZhouH, HuangS, WangZ. Levels and spatial distribution of chlorophenols- 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in surface water of China.Chemosphere, 2008, 71(6): 1181–1187 pmid: 18037470
19 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. World Health Organization, 1999
20 HäggblomM M. Microbial breakdown of halogenated aromatic pesticides and related compounds.FEMS Microbiology Letters, 1992, 9(1): 29–71 pmid: 1389314
21 AliM, SreekrishnanT R. Aquatic toxicity from pulp and paper mill effluents: a review.Advances in Environmental Research, 2001, 5(2): 175–196
22 FieldJ A, StamsA J M, KatoM, SchraaG. Enhanced biodegradation of aromatic pollutants in cocultures of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial consortia.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 1995, 67(1): 47–77 pmid: 7741529
23 ChenY C, ZhanH Y, ChenZ H, FuS Y, ZhangX Y. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol.Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 2003, 15(4): 469–474
pmid: 12974306
24 McFallS M, AbrahamB, NarsolisC G, ChakrabartyA M. A tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate regulating transcription of a chloroaromatic biodegradative pathway: fumarate-mediated repression of the clcABD operon.Journal of Bacteriology, 1997, 179(21): 6729–6735 pmid: 9352923
25 LouieT M, WebsterC M, XunL. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation pathway in Ralstonia eutropha JMP134.Journal of Bacteriology, 2002, 184(13): 3492–3500 pmid: 12057943
26 AnnachhatreA P, GheewalaS H. Biodegradation of chlorinated phenolic compounds.Biotechnology Advances, 1996, 14(1): 35–56 pmid: 14536923
27 WangJ, FuW, HeX, YangS, ZhuW. Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol with functionalized carbon materials as catalysts: reaction mechanism and pathway.Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 2014, 26(8): 1741–1749 pmid: 25108731
28 BockC, KroppenstedtR M, SchmidtU, DiekmannH. Degradation of prochloraz and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by environmental bacterial strains.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1996, 45(1-2): 257–262 pmid: 8920198
29 SnyderC J P, AsgharM, ScharerJ M, LeggeR L. Biodegradation kinetics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by an acclimated mixed microbial culture under aerobic conditions.Biodegradation, 2006, 17(6): 535–544 pmid: 16489415
30 KohringG W, ZhangX M, WiegelJ. Anaerobic dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in freshwater sediments in the presence of sulfate.Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1989, 55(10): 2735–2737
pmid: 2604410
31 AlderA C, HaggblomM M, OppenheimerS R, YoungL Y. Reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in anaerobic sediments.Environmental Science & Technology, 1993, 27(3): 530–538
32 American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd ed.; American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation: Washington DC, USA, 2001
33 ChungJ, BaeW, LeeY W, RittmannB E. Shortcut biological nitrogen removal in hybrid biofilm / suspended growth reactors.Process Biochemistry, 2007, 42(3): 320–328
34 IsmailZ Z, PavlostathisS G. Influence of sulfate reduction on the microbial dechlorination of pentachloroaniline in a mixed anaerobic culture.Biodegradation, 2010, 21(1): 43–57 pmid: 19557522
35 TezelU, PavlostathisS G. Transformation of benzalkonium chloride under nitrate reducing conditions.Environmental Science & Technology, 2009, 43(5): 1342–1348 pmid: 19350901
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Om Prakash, Stefan J. Green, Pooja Singh, Puja Jasrotia, Joel E. Kostka. Stress-related ecophysiology of members of the genus Rhodanobacter isolated from a mixed waste contaminated subsurface[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 23-.
[2] Chen Wang, Jun Wang, Jianqiang Wang, Meiqing Shen. Promotional effect of ion-exchanged K on the low-temperature hydrothermal stability of Cu/SAPO-34 and its synergic application with Fe/Beta catalysts[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 30-.
[3] Guoliang Zhang, Liang Zhang, Xiaoyu Han, Shujun Zhang, Yongzhen Peng. Start-up of PN-anammox system under low inoculation quantity and its restoration after low-loading rate shock[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 32-.
[4] Reza Katal, Mohammad Tanhaei, Jiangyong Hu. Photocatalytic degradation of the acetaminophen by nanocrystal-engineered TiO2 thin film in batch and continuous system[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 27-.
[5] Karla Ilić Đurđić, Raluca Ostafe, Olivera Prodanović, Aleksandra Đurđević Đelmaš, Nikolina Popović, Rainer Fischer, Stefan Schillberg, Radivoje Prodanović. Improved degradation of azo dyes by lignin peroxidase following mutagenesis at two sites near the catalytic pocket and the application of peroxidase-coated yeast cell walls[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(2): 19-.
[6] Jianmei Zou, Jianzhi Huang, Huichun Zhang, Dongbei Yue. Evolution of humic substances in polymerization of polyphenol and amino acid based on non-destructive characterization[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(1): 5-.
[7] Ragini Pirarath, Palani Shivashanmugam, Asad Syed, Abdallah M. Elgorban, Sambandam Anandan, Muthupandian Ashokkumar. Mercury removal from aqueous solution using petal-like MoS2 nanosheets[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(1): 15-.
[8] Pol Masclans Abelló, Vicente Medina Iglesias, M. Antonia de los Santos López, Jesús Álvarez-Flórez. Real drive cycles analysis by ordered power methodology applied to fuel consumption, CO2, NOx and PM emissions estimation[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2021, 15(1): 4-.
[9] Yingdan Zhang, Na Liu, Wei Wang, Jianteng Sun, Lizhong Zhu. Photosynthesis and related metabolic mechanism of promoted rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth by TiO2 nanoparticles[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 103-.
[10] Wenyue Li, Min Chen, Zhaoxiang Zhong, Ming Zhou, Weihong Xing. Hydroxyl radical intensified Cu2O NPs/H2O2 process in ceramic membrane reactor for degradation on DMAc wastewater from polymeric membrane manufacturer[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 102-.
[11] Binbin Sheng, Depeng Wang, Xianrong Liu, Guangxing Yang, Wu Zeng, Yiqing Yang, Fangang Meng. Taxonomic and functional variations in the microbial community during the upgrade process of a full-scale landfill leachate treatment plant – from conventional to partial nitrification-denitrification[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(6): 93-.
[12] Sana Ullah, Xuejun Guo, Xiaoyan Luo, Xiangyuan Zhang, Siwen Leng, Na Ma, Palwasha Faiz. Rapid and long-effective removal of broad-spectrum pollutants from aqueous system by ZVI/oxidants[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(5): 89-.
[13] Wenrui Guo, Yue Wen, Yi Chen, Qi Zhou. Sulfur cycle as an electron mediator between carbon and nitrate in a constructed wetland microcosm[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(4): 57-.
[14] Madhavaraj Lavanya, Ho-Dong Lim, Kong-Min Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim, Balasubramani Ravindran, Gui Hwan Han. A novel strategy for gas mitigation during swine manure odour treatment using seaweed and a microbial consortium[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 53-.
[15] Chaojin Jiang, Xiaoqian Jiang, Lixun Zhang, Yuntao Guan. Enhanced debromination of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by zero-valent zinc with ascorbic acid[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 47-.
Full text