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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (2) : 14
Chemical additives affect sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm properties adsorbed on stainless steel 316L surface in circulating cooling water system
Yu Qi,Jin Li(),Rui Liang,Sitong Ji,Jianxiang Li,Meng Liu
Research Center for Aqueous Organic Pollutants Control and Water Quality Security, Beijing Key Laboratory Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
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There are more polysaccharides than proteins in EPS on SS316L surface.

NaClO cuts down more protein, while 1227 reduced more polysaccharides in EPS.

HEDP slightly eased the corrosion, NaClO and 1227 inhibited the microbial corrosion.

NaClO still performed pitting corrosion properties to some extent.

1227 changed the C:O and NaClO decreased the amidogen in SS316L surface film.

This paper studied the biofilm properties and corrosion behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) on stainless steel 316L (SS316L) surface in circulating cooling water system with and without additives including hydroxy ethyl fork phosphonic acid (HEDP), dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlotide (1227) and NaClO. Biochemical technique, electrochemical technology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. The results show that the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in biofilm attached on the SS316L surface mainly contain proteins and polysaccharides, the contents are 98 ug·cm2 and 635ug·cm2, respectively. The polysaccharides were cut by 1227 about 80%, while 55% by NaClO. The proteins were reduced by NaClO about 53%, while only 30% by 1227. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the corrosion potential of SS316L was enhanced from −0.495 V to −0.390 V by the chemical additives, delaying the occurrence of the corrosion. And the corrosion rate was also reduced from 5.19 × 103 mm·a1 to 2.42 × 103 mm·a1. But NaClO still caused pitting corrosion after sterilizing the bacteria, while 1227 can form a protective film on the surface of SS316L. Though HEDP contribute to the bacteria activity, it can enhance the breakdown potential. XPS results confirmed that 1227 can change the value of C:O in the biofilm attached on metal surface, and NaClO can eliminate the existence of amidogen. This study would provide some recommendations for the selection of chemical additives in the thermal power plant.

Keywords Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB)      Chemical additives      Biofilm      Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)      Microbe Corrosion     
Corresponding Author(s): Jin Li   
Issue Date: 07 April 2017
 Cite this article:   
Yu Qi,Jin Li,Rui Liang, et al. Chemical additives affect sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm properties adsorbed on stainless steel 316L surface in circulating cooling water system[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2017, 11(2): 14.
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Yu Qi
Jin Li
Rui Liang
Sitong Ji
Jianxiang Li
Meng Liu
Fig.1  The EPS content on SS316L surface immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB with and without chemical additives (a–polysaccharide content, b–protein content)
Fig.2  The polarization behavior of SS316L electrode after immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB for 7 d with and without chemical additives
group Ecorra)/V Icorrb)
corrosion rate
Bac)/(mv) Bcd)/(mv)
control experiment -0.495 4.41 × 10-7 5.19 × 10-3 837.34 268.52
HEDP -0.448 2.79 × 10-7 3.28 × 10-3 256.29 163.15
NaClO -0.442 2.06 × 10-7 2.42 × 10-3 364.74 192.59
1227 -0.390 3.34 × 10-7 3.93 × 10-3 383.58 190.74
Tab.1  Data obtained from the active region of the polarization curves of SS316L immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB for 7d with and without chemical additives
Fig.3  Wide XPS spectrum of SS316L surface immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB after immersion for 7 d with and without chemical additives
element control HEDP NaClO 1227
O1s 44.67 46.98 41.11 33.78
C1s 31.13 33.75 34.99 53.62
N1s 5 7.43 2.25 3.84
Mg1s 3.98 2.93
Ca2p 6.8 1.15 3.42
P2p 3.03 2.28 8.2
Na1s 1.73 1.11
Cl2p 2.07 0.06 3.51 1.30
Fe2p 0.21 2.71 0.98 3.24
S2p 1.1 1.12 0.83 0.43
Mn2p 0.07 0.62 0.66 0.88
Ni2p 0.21 0.38 0.01 1.31
Zn2p 0.33 0.02
Tab.2  Atomic ratio (mol%) of the compounds on the SS316L surface immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB for 7 d added with and without chemical additives
Fig.4  High resolution XPS spectra of the surface film on the SS316L coupon after 7 d of immersion in different experimental conditions[(a)–Fe2p; (b)–O1s; (c)–N2p; (d)–S2p; (e)–Ni2p]
valence state sample surface proposed components binding energy /(eV) %areaa)
Fe2p control experiment FeS 709.79 87.53
Fe2O3 706.96 12.47
HEDP Fe2O3 719.67 43.32
FeS 710.25 42.96
FeOOH 706.73 13.72
NaClO FeCl2 710.78 46.15
Fe 706.68 29.17
FeOOH 724.48 24.68
1227 Fe3O4 710.99 46.79
Fe2O3 723.98 53.21
N2p control experiment -NH2 399.57 88.76
C-N 398.64 11.24
HEDP -NH2 399.46 68.74
-(NOH) 400.51 7.60
N-N 400.39 23.66
NaClO C-N 400.05 44.63
-NH2 399.40 22.65
NH4OCl 399.21 32.72
1227 -NH2 399.75 68.89
C-N 402.14 19.88
NH4OCl 397.36 11.24
Tab.3  Fitting parameters for Fe 2p3/2, and N2p XPS spectra and the relative quantity of compounds on the SS316L surface immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB for 7 d added with and without chemical additives
Fig.5  SEM of the surface of SS316L immersed in reclaimed water inoculated SRB after 7 d with and without chemical additives.[(a)–control; (b)–HEDP; (c)–NaClO; (d)–1227]
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