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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (4) : 16
Effect of dilution rate on dynamic and steady-state biofilm characteristics during phenol biodegradation by immobilized Pseudomonas desmolyticum cells in a pulsed plate bioreactor
Veena Bangalore Rangappa1,2,Vidya Shetty Kodialbail1,*(),Saidutta Malur Bharthaiyengar1
1. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar Post, Mangalore PIN-575025, India
2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Kumaraswamy Layout, Bengaluru PIN 560078, India
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Continuous pulsed plate bioreactor (PPBR) was used for phenol biodegradation.

Pseudomonas desmolyticum cells immobilized on granular activated carbon was used.

Dynamic and steady state biofilm characteristics depend on dilution rate (DR).

Lower DR favour phenol degradation and uniform, thick biofilm formation.

Exo polymeric substance production in biofilm are favoured at lower dilution rates.

Pulsed plate bioreactor (PPBR) is a biofilm reactor which has been proven to be very efficient in phenol biodegradation. The present paper reports the studies on the effect of dilution rate on the physical, chemical and morphological characteristics of biofilms formed by the cells of Pseudomonas desmolyticum on granular activated carbon (GAC) in PPBR during biodegradation of phenol. The percentage degradation of phenol decreased from 99% to 73% with an increase in dilution rate from 0.33 h?1 to 0.99 h?1 showing that residence time in the reactor governs the phenol removal efficiency rather than the external mass transfer limitations. Lower dilution rates favor higher production of biomass, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as well as the protein, carbohydrate and humic substances content of EPS. Increase in dilution rate leads to decrease in biofilm thickness, biofilm dry density, and attached dry biomass, transforming the biofilm from dense, smooth compact structure to a rough and patchy structure. Thus, the performance of PPBR in terms of dynamic and steady-state biofilm characteristics associated with phenol biodegradation is a strong function of dilution rate. Operation of PPBR at lower dilution rates is recommended for continuous biologic treatment of wastewaters for phenol removal.

Keywords Biofilm      Exopolymeric substances      Phenol      Dilution rate      Pulsed plate bioreactor     
Corresponding Author(s): Vidya Shetty Kodialbail   
Online First Date: 04 August 2016    Issue Date: 24 August 2016
 Cite this article:   
Veena Bangalore Rangappa,Vidya Shetty Kodialbail,Saidutta Malur Bharthaiyengar. Effect of dilution rate on dynamic and steady-state biofilm characteristics during phenol biodegradation by immobilized Pseudomonas desmolyticum cells in a pulsed plate bioreactor[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(4): 16.
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Veena Bangalore Rangappa
Vidya Shetty Kodialbail
Saidutta Malur Bharthaiyengar
Fig.1  Degradation of phenol during startup for different dilution rates with influent phenol concentration of 200 ppm. Conditions: f=0.082 s-1, A=3.5 cm, Amount of GAC with immobilized cells=80g
Fig.2  Performance of reactor for the removal of phenol with (i) bare GAC and (ii) GAC with immobilized cells. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200 ppm, f=0.08 s-1, A=3.5 cm
Fig.3  Effect of dilution rate on startup time (h) and percentage degradation at steady state. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200ppm; f =0.08s-1; A=3.5cm
Fig.4  Effect of dilution rate on EPS contents a) protein b) humic substance and c) carbohydrate of biofilm . Conditions: Cin=200 ppm, f =0.08 s-1, A=3.5 cm
Fig.5  Effect of dilution rate on EPS contents at steady state. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200 ppm; f=0.08 s-1; A=3.5 cm
Fig.6  Effect of dilution rate during start up on a) biofilm thickness b) attached dry biomass c) biofilm dry density. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200 ppm, f=0.08 s-1, A=3.5 cm
Fig.7  Effect of dilution rate at steady state on biofilm thickness, attached drybiomass, and biofilm dry density (a) during startup (b) at steadystate. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200 ppm, f=0.08 s-1, A=3.5 cm
Fig.8  Morphological characteristics of biofilm using scanning electron microscope at a) 0.33h-1 b) 0.66 h-1 and c) 0.99 h-1. Conditions: Influent phenol concentration=200 ppm, f=0.08 s-1, A=3.5 cm
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