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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (4) : 11     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-016-0854-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Enhanced disinfection of Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2 in water using a copper and silver loaded titanium dioxide nanowire membrane
Guiying RAO1,Kristen S. BRASTAD2,3,Qianyi ZHANG2,Rebecca ROBINSON3,Zhen HE4,Ying LI1()
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
3. A.O. Smith Corporate Technology Center, Milwaukee, WI 53224, USA
4. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
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Abstract

A novel photocatalytic Ag-Cu-TiO2 nanowire membrane was fabricated.

Bacteria and virus disinfection was improved by co-depositing Ag and Cu onto membrane.

Synergetic photocatalytic effects and free metal ions of Ag and Cu contribute to disinfection.

7.68 log removal of E. coli and 4.02 log removal of bacteriophage MS2 were achieved.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used photocatalyst that has been demonstrated for microorganism disinfection in drinking water. In this study, a new material with a novel structure, silver and copper loaded TiO2 nanowire membrane (Cu-Ag-TiO2) was prepared and evaluated for its efficiency to inactivate E. coli and bacteriophage MS2. Enhanced photo-activated bactericidal and virucidal activities were obtained by the Cu-Ag-TiO2 membrane than by the TiO2, Ag-TiO2 and Cu-TiO2 membranes under both dark and UV light illumination. The better performance was attributed to the synergies of enhanced membrane photoactivity by loading silver and copper on the membrane and the synergistic effect between the free silver and copper ions in water. At the end of a 30 min test of dead-end filtration under 254 nm UV irradiation, the Cu-Ag-TiO2 membrane was able to obtain an E. coli removal of 7.68 log and bacteriophage MS2 removal of 4.02 log, which have met the US EPA standard. The free metal ions coming off the membrane have concentrations of less than 10 ppb in the water effluent, far below the US EPA maximum contaminant level for silver and copper ions in drinking water. Therefore, the photo-activated disinfection by the Cu-Ag-TiO2 membrane is a viable technique for meeting drinking water treatment standards of microbiological water purifiers.

Keywords Photo-activated disinfection      Titanium dioxide      Nanowire membrane      Silver      Copper     
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Issue Date: 12 June 2016
 Cite this article:   
Guiying RAO,Kristen S. BRASTAD,Qianyi ZHANG, et al. Enhanced disinfection of Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2 in water using a copper and silver loaded titanium dioxide nanowire membrane[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(4): 11.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-016-0854-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2016/V10/I4/11
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Guiying RAO
Kristen S. BRASTAD
Qianyi ZHANG
Rebecca ROBINSON
Zhen HE
Ying LI
Fig.1  Schematic of the test setup (a) and the exploded diagram of the membrane holder (b)
Fig.2  SEM images of the TiO2 membrane (a) and the Cu-Ag-TiO2 membrane (b); EDS analysis results of the Ag-TiO2 membrane (c), the Cu-TiO2 membrane (d) and the Cu-Ag-TiO2 membrane (e); and membrane cross-section (f)
Fig.3  Pore size distributions of the prepared membranes
Fig.4  Inactivation of E. coli by the TiO2, Ag-TiO2, Cu-TiO2, and Cu-Ag-TiO2 membranes under dark (a) and UV (b) conditions.
Fig.5  Concentrations of free silver ions in water effluent for the Ag-TiO2 membrane and copper ions for the Cu-TiO2 membrane under the dark condition
Fig.6  Inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 for the TiO2, Ag-TiO2, Cu-TiO2, and Cu-Ag-TiO2 membranes under dark (a) and UV (b) conditions.
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