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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (4) : 5     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-016-0844-z
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Impact of preozonation on the bioactivity and biodiversity of subsequent biofilters under low temperature conditions—A pilot study
Jiaxuan YANG,Jun MA(),Dan SONG,Xuedong ZHAI,Xiujuan KONG
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
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Abstract

The bioactivity was enhanced by preozonation under low temperature conditions.

Higher level of BDOC/AOC and DO may enhance the nitrifying performance.

High level of biodiversity and bioactivity may help maintain the stability of filters.

Water quality and DO could selectively enhance different microbial communities.

The combination of preozonation and subsequent biological granular activated carbon (O3/BAC) filtration is well known as a promising method for the removal of many pollutants. Temperature and nutrients are the dominant factors in external conditions to influence the biological communities. To explore the influence of preozonation under low temperature, the factors such as dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and NH4+-N were analyzed from the sampling ports every week; triphenyl tetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (TTC-DHA) and the nitrifying activity were detected along the bed height of biofilter at four levels (10, 40, 70 and 110 cm) on the 90th, 110th, and 130th day; microbial community, based on 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was monitored on the 130th day of the operation. The observed microbial property showed that preozonation had a positive influence on bioactivity, biomass and nitrifying activity. Community analysis showed no significant difference on the biodiversity of nitrifying bacteria between the parallel filters in the inlet end based on the method employed. This result showed that biofilters’ performance is not correlated well with microbial biodiversity. The elevated functionality in O3/BAC filters can be a result of increased microbial activity, which was promoted by preozonation.

Keywords Preozonation      BAC filtration      High ammonia level      Bacterial activity      Microbial community structure      Pilot scale study     
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Corresponding Author(s): Jun MA   
Issue Date: 12 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Jiaxuan YANG,Jun MA,Dan SONG, et al. Impact of preozonation on the bioactivity and biodiversity of subsequent biofilters under low temperature conditions—A pilot study[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(4): 5.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-016-0844-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2016/V10/I4/5
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Jiaxuan YANG
Jun MA
Dan SONG
Xuedong ZHAI
Xiujuan KONG
Fig.1  Scheme of the system and the biofilters
parameters raw water BAC filter O3/BAC filter
influent effluent influent effluent
temperature /℃ 5.3–8.0 4.5–7.7 3.6–7.0 4.5–7.5 3.4–7.0
pH 7.53–7.69 7.36–7.48 7.41–7.56 7.32–7.45 7.45–7.61
DO /(mg·L-1) 9.45–10.08 8.95–9.89 2.80–4.20 13.61–16.69 0.48–2.09
turbidity / (NTU) 4.84–14.2 2.59–4.75 0.16–0.51 1.69–4.10 0.11–0.41
ammonia /(mg·L-1) 1.53–2.74 1.41–2.68 0.19–0.28 1.41–2.65 0.32–0.51
nitrite /(mg·L-1) 0.11–0.16 0.12–0.13 0.01–0.04 0.01–0.01 0.00–0.00
nitrate /(mg·L-1) 3.79–5.45 4.16–5.55 5.09–7.21 4.44–5.90 5.09–6.35
DOC /(mg·L-1) 6.08–10.54 4.16–5.84 2.27–3.28 4.72–6.18 1.54–2.14
UV254 /cm-1 0.079–0.092 0.042–0.051 0.018–0.024 0.030–0.036 0.009–0.014
Tab.1  Summary of water quality during the period of winter in the plant
Fig.2  Schematic of the investigated bio-filters in drinking water treatment. The sampling ports for water sample (WS) (WS0-WS12, with each interval 10 cm, on the right) and BAC samples (BACS) (BACS1- BACS4, on the left) are labeled upwards
raw water conventional pretreated water BAC filter effluent ozone pretreated water O3/BAC filter effluent
AOC/(μg·L-1) 335.5–371.8 304.4–353.2 149.3–215.0 421.0–512.6 89.1–150.2
BDOC/(mg·L-1) 3.74–5.04 3.61–4.79 1.52–2.81 4.52–6.23 0.77–1.24
DO/(mg·L-1) 9.45–10.08 8.95–9.89 2.80–4.20 13.61–16.69 0.48–2.09
NH4+-N/(mg·L-1) 1.40–2.57 1.51–2.54 0.32–0.51 1.51–2.62 0.26–0.55
Tab.2  Range of AOC, BDOC, DO and NH4+-N of each process of the pilot scale treatment on the 90th, 110th, and 130th day
Fig.3  DOC removal rate (a) and bioactivity (b) filter profiles for three sampling days at steady period. Data in (a) are the means of triplicate independent measurements, and (b) are the means of the three different points in time, with a standard deviation always below 5% for three replicate measurements each time
Fig.4  NH4+-N removal rate (a) and nitrifying activity (b) distributed in the filters for three sampling days at steady-state condition. All data in (a) are the means of triplicate independent measurements, and (b) are the means of the three different point in time, with a standard deviation always below 5% for three replicate measurements every time
Fig.5  DO concentration filter profiles for three sampling days at steady period, all data are the means of the three different point in time, with a standard deviation always below 5% for three replicate measurements every time
Fig.6  (a) Phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences from DGGE bands of lower part of the both type of biofilters (BAC sample drawn from 10, 40 cm sampling port. Bacteria No. 40-1 and No. 40-3 were detected at 40 cm sampling port only. G40-2 and G40-3 were detected at 40 cm sampling port of the BAC filter); (b) phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences from DGGE bands of middle-upper part of the BAC filter (BAC samples drawn from 70, and 110 cm sampling ports. Bacteria No.G110-21/ 22/23/102/103 were detected at 110 cm sampling port only); (c) phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences from DGGE bands of middle-upper part of the O3/biofilter (BAC sample drawn from 70, and 110 cm sampling ports. Bacteria No.110-31/32/33/41/43 were detected at 110 cm sampling port only)
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