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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (6) : 820-824     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-014-0712-7
SHORT COMMUNICATION |
Haloacetic acids in swimming pool and spa water in the United States and China
Xiaomao WANG1,Garcia Leal M I2,Xiaolu ZHANG1,Hongwei YANG1,Yuefeng XIE1,3,*()
1. School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n 39005 Santander, Cantabria, Spain
3. Environmental Engineering Program, The Pennsylvania State University, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057, USA
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Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the occurrence of haloacetic acids (HAAs), a group of disinfection byproducts, in swimming pool and spa water. The samples were collected from six indoor pools, six outdoor pools and three spas in Pennsylvania, the United States, and from five outdoor pools and nine indoor pools in Beijing, China. Five HAAs (HAA5), including monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid were analyzed. Total chlorine, pH and total organic carbon concentration were analyzed as well. Results indicated that the levels of HAA5 in swimming pools and spas in the United States ranged from 70 to 3980 μg·L-1, with an arithmetic average at 1440 μg·L-1 and a median level at 1150 μg·L-1. These levels are much higher than the levels reported in chlorinated drinking water and are likely due to organic matters released from swimmers’ bodies. The levels of HAA5 in swimming pools in China ranged from 13 to 332 μg·L-1, with an arithmetic average at 117 μg·L-1 and a median level at 114 μg·L-1. The lower HAA levels in swimming pools in China were due to the lower chlorine residuals. Results from this study can help water professionals to better understand the formation and stability of HAAs in chlorinated water and assess risks associated with exposures to HAAs in swimming pools and spas.

Keywords chlorination      disinfection byproduct      haloacetic acid      swimming pool      trihalomethane     
Corresponding Authors: Yuefeng XIE   
Online First Date: 07 May 2014    Issue Date: 17 November 2014
 Cite this article:   
Yuefeng XIE,Xiaomao WANG,Garcia Leal M I, et al. Haloacetic acids in swimming pool and spa water in the United States and China[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2014, 8(6): 820-824.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-014-0712-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2014/V8/I6/820
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Yuefeng XIE
Xiaomao WANG
Garcia Leal M I
Xiaolu ZHANG
Hongwei YANG
category pool number pH TOC/(mg·L-1) total chlorine/(mg·L-1) Cl2AA /(μg·L-1) Cl3AA /(μg·L-1) HAA5 /(μg·L-1)
outdoor 1 7.1 2.0 9.8 1330 930 2430
2 7.1 1.1 10.0 450 440 890
3 7.6 1.3 1.4 350 450 800
4 6.9 8.5 8.0 310 1140 1450
5 7.3 0.9 10.6 480 370 950
6 7.4 0.9 6.6 1280 750 2130
indoor 7 7.1 1.3 4.0 50 20 70
8 7.5 3.5 1.5 590 290 780
9 7.7 5.3 2.7 1010 2970 3980
10 7.5 6.6 5.6 2040 880 2920
11 7.0 2.9 3.6 530 1110 1680
12 7.4 8.4 3.1 140 70 250
spa 13 7.7 9.3 2.3 750 530 1360
14 7.6 3.7 0.9 550 420 1150
15 7.4 11.3 4.3 50 40 690
Tab.1  Analytical results of the 15 swimming pools and spas in the United States
category pool number pH TOC/(mg·L-1) total chlorine/(mg·L-1) Cl2AA /(μg·L-1) Cl3AA /(μg·L-1) HAA5 /(μg·L-1)
outdoor 1 8.1 9.2 1.1 55 40 113
2 7.9 12.6 3.9 68 50 147
3 7.8 13.0 3.1 195 98 332
4 8.3 3.2 0.3 44 33 89
5 8.3 N.D. 0.3 44 40 99
indoor 6 7.7 2.7 1.1 35 90 128
7 8.0 3.3 1.1 40 74 123
8 7.4 5.0 0.2 5 6 13
9 8.3 6.1 0.8 60 60 121
10 7.6 16.2 0.8 28 84 114
11 7.0 20 0.6 32 18 59
12 8.5 12.8 2.0 37 30 70
13 8.2 4.7 1.0 50 47 133
14 7.2 27.2 0.6 22 70 92
Tab.2  Analytical results of the 14 swimming pools in China
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