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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (1) : 114-128     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-014-0669-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Dynamic simulation of urban water metabolism under water environmental carrying capacity restrictions
Weihua ZENG1,2,*(),Bo WU2,Ying CHAI2
1. State Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2. School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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Abstract

A revised concept for urban water metabolism (UWM) is presented in this study to address the inadequacies in current research on UWM and the problems associated with the traditional urban water metabolic process. Feedback loops can be analyzed to increase the water environmental carrying capacity (WECC) of the new urban water metabolism system (UWMS) over that of a traditional UWMS. An analysis of the feedback loops of an UWMS was used to construct a system dynamics (SD) model for the system under a WECC restriction. Water metabolic processes were simulated for different scenarios using the Tongzhou District in Beijing as an example. The results for the newly developed UWM case showed that a water environment of Tongzhou District could support a population of 1.1926 × 106, an irrigation area of 375.521 km2, a livestock of 0.7732 × 106, and an industrial value added of ¥193.14 × 109 (i.e. about US$28.285× 109) in 2020. A sensitivity analysis showed that the WECC could be improved to some extent by constructing new sewage treatment facilities or by expanding the current sewage treatment facilities, using reclaimed water and improving the water circulation system.

Keywords urban water metabolism system (UWMS)      system dynamic simulation      water environmental carrying capacity (WECC)      feedback loops      bilateral control     
Corresponding Authors: Weihua ZENG   
Issue Date: 03 December 2015
 Cite this article:   
Weihua ZENG,Bo WU,Ying CHAI. Dynamic simulation of urban water metabolism under water environmental carrying capacity restrictions[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(1): 114-128.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-014-0669-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2016/V10/I1/114
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Weihua ZENG
Bo WU
Ying CHAI
Fig.1  Traditional UWMS
Fig.2  New UWMS
Fig.3  Bilateral control measures for the new UWMS
Fig.4  Schematic showing three feedback loops
Fig.5  Feedback loop I
Fig.6  Feedback loop II
Fig.7  Feedback loop III
Fig.8  Structure of UWMS
Fig.9  UWM model for water supply system
Fig.10  UWM model for water use system of domestic
Fig.11  UWM model for water use system of agricultural
Fig.12  UWM model for water use system of industry
Fig.13  UWM model for water treatment and water reclamation system
urban life rural life
water consumption C c = E c × P c C r = E r × P r
Cc—water consumption from urban daily activities, m3; Cr—water consumption from rural daily activities, m3;
Ec—per capita water consumption of urban residents, m3; Er—per capita water consumption of rural residents, m3;
Pc—urban population, dmnl Pr—rural population, dmnl
water withdrawals C c = C c × ( 1 R r r ) C r = C r
C c —water withdrawal for urban daily activities, m3; C r —water withdrawal for rural daily activities, m3;
Rrr—return reuse rate of reclaimed water for district, dmnl
sewage output G c = P c × E c × [ R c ( 1 R c r ) ] G r = C r × ( 1 R r )
Gc—sewage output from urban daily activities, m3; Gr—sewage output from rural daily activities, m3;
Rcr— rate of high-quality water for domestic water use, dmnl; Rr—coefficient of rural water use, dmnl
Rc—coefficient of urban water use, dmnl
quantity of pollutants generated G c C O D = P c × E c C O D G r C O D = P r × E r C O D
GcCOD—amount of COD generated from urban daily activities, kg; GrCOD—amount of COD generated from rural daily activities, kg;
EcCOD—coefficient of COD generated from urban daily activities, kg ErCOD—coefficient of COD generated from rural daily activities, kg
Tab.1  Correlation formulas for a domestic water system in the UWM model
Fig.14  Logical structure for quantitative urban WECC models of water metabolism
adjustment factors calculation formulas
adjustment factors for the quantity of fresh water (quantity of high-quality water supply-fresh water withdrawal) / fresh water withdrawal
adjustment factors for the quantity of depth stage reclaimed water (quantity of depth stage reclaimed water supply-available quantity of depth stage reclaimed water) / available quantity of depth stage reclaimed water
adjustment factors for the quantity of second stage reclaimed water (quantity of second stage reclaimed water supply-available quantity of second stage reclaimed water) / available quantity of second stage reclaimed water
COD adjustment factor (allowable COD discharge-COD discharge)/ COD discharge
Tab.2  Formulas for calculating the adjustment factors
Fig.15  Solution procedure for an urban WECC model of an UWMS
Fig.16  Population served (a), irrigation area (b), number of livestock (c) and industrial value added (d) that the water environment of Tongzhou District can support
Fig.17  Population served (a), irrigation area (b), number of livestock (c) and industrial value added (d) that the water environment of Tongzhou District can support
parameter variation population irrigation area number of livestock industrial value added
2020prediction alteration rate 2020Prediction alteration rate 2020prediction alteration rate 2020prediction alteration rate
10% increase 123.24 6.47% 63.71 23.41% 76.36 −2.40% 199.59 6.47%
original value 119.26 56.30 77.32 193.14
10% decrease 115.52 50.53 78.21 187.09
Tab.3  Results of sensitivity analysis for the relevant parameters in reclaimed water use
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