Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front Envir Sci Eng    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (1) : 2-16     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-011-0370-y
FEATURE ARTICLE |
Addressing the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants in China
Bin WANG, Jun HUANG, Shubo DENG, Xiaoling YANG, Gang YU()
POPs Research Center, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China
Download: PDF(682 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001. This year is the 10th anniversary of the adoption of the Convention. Until now, 22 chemicals or chemical categories have been listed as POPs in the Stockholm Convention. The POPs Research Center was established in Tsinghua University in the same year when the Convention was adopted. In the last ten years, much work has been done by Chinese researchers to understand the environmental risk of POPs in China. This article aims to review the recent research progress of our POPs Research Center and some other Chinese researchers’ studies in addressing the environmental risk of POPs, including the priority screening and inventory study of POPs, monitoring and modeling of POPs pollution and exposure, and environmental risk assessment and modeling of POPs. Although great advances in addressing the environmental risk of POPs have been made in recent years, we are still facing quite a few problems, such as data scarcity and uncertainty in environmental risk assessment of POPs. The study on the effect of POPs mixtures is in its infancy and currently POPs are usually assessed from legal perspective by risk assessment of single chemicals. These problems should be well addressed by further efforts. Further studies should also be taken in future to study environment risk of POPs by considering aspects of coupled dynamics between climate processes and POPs. Such sound scientific, risk-based information can support decision-making aiming to effectively minimize the risk level of POPs.

Keywords persistent organic pollutant (POPs)      environmental risk assessment      inventory      environmental monitoring      fugacity model      emerging POPs     
Corresponding Authors: YU Gang,Email:yg-den@tsinghua.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 01 February 2012
 Cite this article:   
Bin WANG,Jun HUANG,Shubo DENG, et al. Addressing the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants in China[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2012, 6(1): 2-16.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-011-0370-y
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2012/V6/I1/2
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Bin WANG
Jun HUANG
Shubo DENG
Xiaoling YANG
Gang YU
Fig.1  General distribution of existing PCBs in China
Fig.2  Flow chart diagram of China dioxin emission inventory methodology []
Fig.3  DDTs and HCHs in water bodies in China: (a) sediment; (b) water
POPsPBDEsPFOSDPSCCPs a)
productionPOP-PBDEs (PentaBDE and OctaBDE) are not produced anymore in China, but the non-listed DecaBDE still is, which can degrade to POP-PBDEs.Mass produced. The productions in 2004-2006 were 91, 165, and 247 t, respectively.Until 2009, there is only one DP factory in Jiangsu Province. The output is about 300 tons. However, its production capacity will be increased by several times.China is the largest producer of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). But the exact information about SCCPs production is unavailable.
usageMass used as flame retardants.Textile treatment, metal plating, semiconductor production, and fire-fighting foams are the main industries in China that utilize PFOS, with consumption amounts of 100 , 25 , 0.5 , and 80 t, respectively.Mass used as flame retardants.Use as additives in lubricants and cutting fluids, as well as flame retardants and plasticizers.
potential sourceE-waste dismantling in Guangdong and Zhejiang etc. During the Production and Usage.During the Production and Usage. STPs are also identified to be important sources.Mainly by usage. Production may be an unimportant source in China. E-waste dismantling maybe a significant source.During the Production and Usage. STPs are also identified to be important sources.
research statusRelatively well studied in the multimedia environment, human, and organisms.Quite a few studies have been conducted in the various environmental matrices, humans, and organisms.Some studies have been conducted on DP pollution in China in very recent years.Several studies on the SCCPs pollution in China have been reported only in recent two years.
pollution statusIn some e-waste dismantling sites in Guangdong and Zhejiang Provinces, the levels are very high. BDE-209 is usually the dominant congener.PFOS is usually the dominant perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment, except in the water. PFOS levels in China are relatively low, due to the lower usage in China compared to North America.The DP levels in air in China are comparable to those in air in Great Lakes, USA. The DP levels in soil in Huai’an were compared with the sediment concentrations in Lakes Ontario and Erie. High human exposure levels to DP in e-waste dismantling areas were observed.SCCPs levels in influent of a STP are higher than those reported in Japan. In China, SCCPs occur widely in the natural water body, the effluent-receiving aquatic ecosystem, and the wastewater irrigated area.
Tab.1  Summary of emerging POPs in China (updated from [])
Fig.4  Model-estimated mirex pollution in soil in China (pg·g dw) []
Fig.5  Food web relationship in Bohai Bay used for food web model [,]
Fig.6  Multi-level ERA concept corresponding to the exposure life cycle of POPs
Fig.7  Framework of ecological risk assessment of POPs: ① data acquisition; ② exposure assessment; ③ hazard assessment; ④ risk characterization)
Fig.8  SSDs with 95% confidence interval derived from parametric approach and nonparametric bootstrap approach []: (a) SSD based on log-normal regression; (b) SSD based on modified bootstrap method
Fig.9  General ecological risk of DDT in Chinese provinces []: (a) HQ; (b) PAF
Fig.10  Illustration of the Joint Probability Curve (JPC) []
Fig.11  Illustration of (a) HQ distribution and (b) exceedance probability of HQs based on Monte Carlo simulation []
1 Wang B, Iino F, Yu G, Huang J, Morita M. The pollution status of emerging persistent organic pollutants in China. Environmental Engineering Science , 2010, 27(3): 215–225
doi: 10.1089/ees.2009.0337
2 Huang J, Yu G, Zhang P Y. Computer-aided primary screening for potential persistent organic pollutants in China. Environmental Pollution & Control , 2003, 25(1): 16–19 (in Chinese)
3 Sui Q, Huang J, Yu G. Priority analysis for controlling endocrine disrupting chemicals in municipal wastewater treatment plants of China. Environmental Sciences , 2009, 30(2): 384–390 (in Chinese)
4 Wang B, Yu G, Huang J, Hu H Y. The application of QSAR/QSPR in fate evaluation and risk assessment of POPs. Progress in Chemistry , 2007, 19(10): 1612–1619 (in Chinese)
5 Mekenyan O G, Dimitrov S D, Pavlov T S, Veith G D. POPs: A QSAR system for developing categories for persistent, bioacculative and toxic chemicals and their metabolites. SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research , 2005, 16(1-2): 103–133
doi: 10.1080/10629360412331319907
6 Klasmeier J, Matthies M, Macleod M, Fenner K, Scheringer M, Stroebe M, Le Gall A C, Mckone T, van de Meent D, Wania F. Application of multimedia models for screening assessment of long-range transport potential and overall persistence. Environmental Science & Technology , 2006, 40(1): 53–60
doi: 10.1021/es0512024
7 Xing Y, Lu Y L, Dawson R W, Shi Y J, Zhang H, Wang T Y, Liu W B, Ren H C. A spatial temporal assessment of pollution from PCBs in China. Chemosphere , 2005, 60(6): 731–739
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.05.001
8 Shi W, Yu G, Huang J, Zhang W. Inventory methodology and occurrence of PCBs wastes in Zhejiang Province of China. Organohalogen Compounds , 2005, 67: 1066–1069
9 Shi W. China PCB Inventory Methodology and Application demonstration. Dissertation for the Master Degree . Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2005 (in Chinese)
10 Wei D B, Kameya T, Urano K. Environmental management of pesticidal POPs in China: Past, present and future. Environment International , 2007, 33(7): 894–902
doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2007.04.006
11 Wong M H, Leung A O W, Chan J K Y, Choi M P K. A review on the usage of POP pesticides in China, with emphasis on DDT loadings in human milk. Chemosphere , 2005, 60(6): 740–752
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.028
12 Hua X, Shan Z. The production and application of pesticides and factor analysis of their pollution in environment in China. Advances in Environmental Science , 1996, 4(2): 33–45 (in Chinese)
13 Zhao L J. Usage Inventories for Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in China. Dissertation for the Master Degree . Beijing: Peking University, 2005 (in Chinese)
14 Li Y F, Cai D J, Shan Z J, Zhu Z L. Gridded usage inventories of technical hexachlorocyclohexane and lindane for china with 1/6°latitude by 1/4° longitude resolution. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 2001, 41(3): 261–266
doi: 10.1007/s002440010247
15 Li Y F, Cai D J, Singh A. Technical hexachlorocyclohexane use trends in China and their impact on the environment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 1998, 35(4): 688–697
doi: 10.1007/s002449900432
16 GEF. China—Demonstration of Alternatives to Chlordane and Mirex in Termite Control Project. Washington: GEF, 2006
17 Jia H L, Li Y F, Wang D G, Cai D J, Yang M, Ma J M, Hu J X. Endosulfan in China 1-gridded usage inventories. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 2009, 16(3): 295–301
doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0042-z
18 Jia H L, Sun Y Q, Li Y F, Tian C G, Wang D G, Yang M, Ding Y S, Ma J M. Endosulfan in China 2-emissions and residues. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 2009, 16(3): 302–311
doi: 10.1007/s11356-009-0125-5
19 Wang B, Iino F, Yu G, Huang J, Wei Y X, Yamazaki N, Chen J F, Chen X L, Jiang W, Morita M. HRGC/HRMS analysis of mirex in soil of Liyang and preliminary assessment of mirex pollution in China. Chemosphere , 2010, 79(3): 299–304
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.023
20 Wang B. Ecological Risk Assessment Model of Persistent Organic Pollutants and its Application. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree . Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2008 (in Chinese)
21 UNEP. Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances: Central and North East Asia Regional Report. Gevena: UNEP-Chemicals, 2002
22 UNEP. Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases (Edition 2.1). Gevena: UNEP-Chemicals, 2005
23 Fiedler H. National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. Chemosphere , 2007, 67(9): S96–S108
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.093
24 SEPA. The People’s Republic of China National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Beijing: SEPA, 2007
25 Zhang Q, Huang J, Yu G. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emissions from open burning of crop residues in China between 1997 and 2004. Environmental Pollution , 2008, 151(1): 39–46
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.03.011
26 Zhang T T, Huang J, Deng S B, Yu G. Influence of pesticides contamination on the emission of PCDD/PCDF to the land from open burning of corn straws. Environmental Pollution , 2011, 159(6): 1744–1748
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.042
27 Zhang T T, Fiedler H, Yu G, Ochoa G S, Carroll W F Jr, Gullett B K, Marklund S, Touati A. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries. Chemosphere , 2011, 84(7): 994–1001
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.070
28 Lim V C. Inventory Methodology and Ecological Risk Assessment of PFOS in China. Dissertation for the Master Degree . Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2011 (in Chinese)
29 Zhang Z L, Huang J, Yu G, Hong H S. Occurrence of PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Tonghui River of Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution , 2004, 130(2): 249–261
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.12.002
30 Wang B, Yu G, Huang J, Yu Y J, Hu H Y, Wang L S. Tiered aquatic ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and their mixture in Jiangsu reach of Huaihe River, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 2009, 157(1-4): 29–42
doi: 10.1007/s10661-008-0512-2
31 Zhang Z L, Hong H S, Zhou J L, Huang J, Yu G. Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China. Chemosphere , 2003, 52(9): 1423–1430
doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00478-8
32 Huang J, Zhang Z L, Yu G. Occurrence of dissolved PAHs in the Jinsha River (Panzhihua)–upper reaches of the Yangtze River, Southwest China. Journal of Environmental Monitoring , 2003, 5(4): 604–609
doi: 10.1039/b210670a
33 Wang T, Huang J, Yu G. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the Haihe River and Bohai Bay. Journal of Tsinghua University , 2008, 48(9): 82–85 (in Chinese)
34 Wang T, Huang J, Yu G. Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments of Haihe Estuary. China Environmental Science , 2009, 29(7): 722–726 (in Chinese)
35 Wang T, Zhang Z L, Huang J, Yu G, Li F S. Occurrence of dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls and organic chlorinated pesticides in the surface water of Haihe River and Bohai Bay. China Environmental Science , 2007, 28(4): 730–735 (in Chinese)
36 Lv Y, Wang L N, Huang J, Wang T. PBDEs in sediments and crucians of Haihe River and Bohai Bay. Environmental Pollution & Control , 2007, 29(9): 652–655 (in Chinese)
37 Wang B, Iino F, Huang J, Lu Y, Yu G, Morita M. Dechlorane Plus pollution and inventory in soil of Huai’an City, China. Chemosphere , 2010, 80(11): 1285–1290
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.06.052
38 Schoeters G, Goyvaerts M P, Ooms D, Van Cleuvenbergen R. The evaluation of dioxin and dioxin-like contaminants in selected food samples obtained from the Belgian market: Comparison of TEQ measurements obtained through the CALUX bioassay with congener specific chemical analyses. Chemosphere , 2004, 54(9): 1289–1297
doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00248-0
39 Wang B, Yu G, Zhang T T, Huang J, Wang T, Nakamura M, Handa H, Huang C C, Murata H. CALUX bioassay of dioxin-like compounds in sediments from the Haihe River, China. Soil and Sediment Contamination , 2009, 18(4): 397–411
doi: 10.1080/15320380902962379
40 Zhang T T, Yu G, Wang B, Fiedler H, Huang J, Deng S B. Bioanalytical characterization of dioxin-like activity in sewage sludge from Beijing, China. Chemosphere , 2009, 75(5): 649–653
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.064
41 Chen H Y, Zhuang H S. Real-time immuno-PCR assay for detecting PCBs in soil samples. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry , 2009, 394(4): 1205–1211
doi: 10.1007/s00216-009-2787-8
42 Shen C F, Chen Y X, Huang S B, Wang Z J, Yu C N, Qiao M, Xu Y P, Setty K, Zhang J Y, Zhu Y F, Lin Q. Dioxin-like compounds in agricultural soils near e-waste recycling sites from Taizhou area, China: Chemical and bioanalytical characterization. Environment International , 2009, 35(1): 50–55
doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.005
43 Rong Z Y, Li K, Yin H W. Pilot study of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans level in agricultural soil in Shanghai, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment , 2010, 171(1-4): 493–500
doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1294-x
44 Wang T Y, Lu Y L, Zhang H, Shi Y J. Contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and relevant management in China. Environment International , 2005, 31(6): 813–821
doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.043
45 Zhu J X, Hirai Y, Sakai S, Zheng M H. Potential source and emission analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China. Chemosphere , 2008, 73(1): S72–S77
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.06.092
46 Zhu J X, Hirai Y, Yu G, Sakai S. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in China and chemometric analysis of potential emission sources. Chemosphere , 2008, 70(4): 703–711
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.06.053
47 Sui Q, Huang J, Deng S B, Chen W W, Yu G. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in different biological wastewater treatment processes. Environmental Science & Technology , 2011, 45(8): 3341–3348
doi: 10.1021/es200248d
48 Guan Y F, Wang J Z, Ni H G, Luo X J, Mai B X, Zeng E Y. Riverine inputs of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from the Pearl River Delta (China) to the coastal ocean. Environmental Science & Technology , 2007, 41(17): 6007–6013
doi: 10.1021/es070782x
49 Yeung L W Y, So M K, Jiang G B, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Song M Y, Wu Y N, Li J G, Giesy J P, Guruge K S, Lam P K S. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood samples from China. Environmental Science & Technology , 2006, 40(3): 715–720
doi: 10.1021/es052067y
50 Ren N Q, Sverko E, Li Y F, Zhang Z, Harner T, Wang D G, Wan X N, McCarry B E. Levels and isomer profiles of Dechlorane Plus in Chinese air. Environmental Science & Technology , 2008, 42(17): 6476–6480
doi: 10.1021/es800479c
51 Zeng L X, Wang T, Wang P, Liu Q, Han S L, Yuan B, Zhu N L, Wang Y W, Jiang G B. Distribution and trophic transfer of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in an aquatic ecosystem receiving effluents from a sewage treatment plant. Environmental Science & Technology , 2011, 45(13): 5529–5535
doi: 10.1021/es200895b
52 Zeng L X, Wang T, Han W Y, Yuan B, Liu Q A, Wang Y W, Jiang G B. Spatial and vertical distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soils from wastewater irrigated farmlands. Environmental Science & Technology , 2011, 45(6): 2100–2106
doi: 10.1021/es103740v
53 Gao Y, Wang C, Zhang H J. Zou L L, Tian Y Z, Chen J P. Analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River by HRGC/ECNI-LRMS. Environmental Sciences , 2010, 31(8): 1904–1908 (in Chinese)
54 Cao H Y, Tao S, Xu F L, Coveney R M, Cao J, Li B G, Liu W X, Wang X J, Hu J Y, Shen W R, Qin B P, Sun R. Multimedia fate model for hexachlorocyclohexane in Tianjin, China. Environmental Science & Technology , 2004, 38(7): 2126–2132
doi: 10.1021/es0305860
55 Tao S, Cao H Y, Liu W X, Li B G, Cao J, Xu F L, Wang X J, Coveney R M, Shen W R, Qin B P, Sun R. Fate modeling of phenanthrene with regional variation in Tianjin, China. Environmental Science & Technology , 2003, 37(11): 2453–2459
doi: 10.1021/es021023b
56 Ao J T, Chen J W, Tian F L, Cai X Y. Application of a level IV fugacity model to simulate the long-term fate of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in the lower reach of Yellow River basin, China. Chemosphere , 2009, 74(3): 370–376
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.085
57 Mackay D. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, 2001
58 Chen C S. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic species exposed to contaminants in Keelung River, Taiwan. Chemosphere , 2005, 61(8): 1142–1158
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.077
59 Hunter J G, Burger J, Cooper K R. Use of an integrated mercury food web model for ecological risk assessment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A—Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering , 2003, 38(7): 1201–1214
60 Preziosi D V, Pastorok R A. Ecological food web analysis for chemical risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment , 2008, 406(3): 491–502
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.063
61 Campfens J, Mackay D. Fugacity-based model of PCB bioaccumulation in complex aquatic food webs. Environmental Science & Technology , 1997, 31(2): 577–583
doi: 10.1021/es960478w
62 Wang B, Yu G, Huang J, Wang T, Hu H Y. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of DDTs in the Bohai Bay based on a food web bioaccumulation model. Science of the Total Environment , 2011, 409(3): 495–502
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.039
63 Tong L, Tang Q. A preliminary approach on mass-balance ecopath model of the Bohai Sea. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology , 2000, 11(3): 435–440
64 Wang B, Yu G, Yu Y J, Huang J, Hu H Y, Wang L S. Health risk assessment of organic pollutants in Jiangsu Reach of the Huaihe River, China. Water Science and Technology , 2009, 59(5): 907– 916
doi: 10.2166/wst.2009.038
65 Jiang Q T, Lee T K M, Chen K, Wong H L, Zheng J S, Giesy J P, Lo K K W, Yamashita N, Lam P K S. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China. Environmental Pollution , 2005, 136(1): 155–165
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.09.028
66 Yang Y, Tao S, Wong P K, Hu J Y, Guo M, Cao H Y, Coveney R M Jr, Zuo Q, Li B G, Liu W, Cao J, Xu F L. Human exposure and health risk of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) in Tianjin, China. Chemosphere , 2005, 60(6): 753–761
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.024
67 Van der Hoeven N. Estimating the 5-percentile of the species sensitivity distributions without any assumptions about the distribution. Ecotoxicology , 2001, 10(1): 25–34
doi: 10.1023/A:1008998405241
68 Duboudin C, Ciffroy P, Magaud H. Acute-to-chronic species sensitivity distribution extrapolation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , 2004, 23(7): 1774–1785
doi: 10.1002/etc.5620230723
69 Grist E P M, O’Hagan A, Crane M, Sorokin N, Sims I, Whitehouse P. Bayesian and time-independent species sensitivity distributions for risk assessment of chemicals. Environmental Science & Technology , 2006, 40(1): 395–401
doi: 10.1021/es050871e
70 Wang B, Yu G, Huang J, Hu H Y. Development of species sensitivity distributions and estimation of HC5 of organochlorine pesticides with five statistical approaches. Ecotoxicology , 2008, 17(8): 716–724
doi: 10.1007/s10646-008-0220-2
71 Wang X L, Tao S, Dawson R W, Xu F L. Characterizing and comparing risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Tianjin wastewater-irrigated area. Environmental Research , 2002, 90(3): 201–206
doi: 10.1016/S0013-9351(02)00026-9
72 Zolezzi M, Cattaneo C, Tarazona J V. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene at a former industrial contaminated site. Environmental Science & Technology , 2005, 39(9): 2920–2926
doi: 10.1021/es049214x
73 Altenburger R, Backhaus T, Boedeker W. Predictability of the toxicity of multiple chemical mixtures to Vibrio Fischeri: Mixtures composed of similarly acting chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , 2000, 19(9): 2341–2347
74 Altenburger R, Nendza M, Schüürmann G. Mixture toxicity and its modeling by quantitative structure-activity relationships. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , 2003, 22(8): 1900–1915
doi: 10.1897/01-386
75 Backhaus T, Scholze M, Grimme L H. The single substance and mixture toxicity of quinolones to the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Aquatic Toxicology , 2000, 49(1-2): 49–61
doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(99)00069-7
76 Wang B, Yu G, Hu H Y, Wang L S. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and mixture toxicity of substituted benzaldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 2007, 78(6): 503–509
doi: 10.1007/s00128-007-9144-4
77 Faust M, Altenburger R, Backhaus T, Blanck H, Boedeker W, Gramatica P, Hamer V, Scholze M, Vighi M, Grimme L H. Joint algal toxicity of 16 dissimilarly acting chemicals is predictable by the concept of independent action. Aquatic Toxicology , 2003, 63(1): 43–63
doi: 10.1016/S0166-445X(02)00133-9
78 Qiu X H, Zhu T, Yao B, Hu J X, Hu S W. Contribution of dicofol to the current DDT pollution in China. Environmental Science & Technology , 2005, 39(12): 4385–4390
doi: 10.1021/es050342a
79 Wang B, Yu G, Huang J, Wang T, Hu H Y. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of OCPs, PCBs, and DLCs in the Haihe River, China. TheScientificWorldJournal , 2010, 10: 1307–1317
doi: 10.1100/tsw.2010.126
80 Dubus I G, Brown C D, Beulke S. Sources of uncertainty in pesticide fate modelling. Science of the Total Environment , 2003, 317(1-3): 53–72
doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00362-0
81 Miraglia M, Marvin H J P, Kleter G A, Battilani P, Brera C, Coni E, Cubadda F, Croci L, De Santis B, Dekkers S, Filippi L, Hutjes R W A, Noordam M Y, Pisante M, Piva G, Prandini A, Toti L, van den Born G J, Vespermann A. Climate change and food safety: An emerging issue with special focus on Europe. Food and Chemical Toxicology , 2009, 47(5): 1009–1021
doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.005
82 Weber R, Gaus C, Tysklind M, Johnston P, Forter M, Hollert H, Heinisch E, Holoubek I, Lloyd-Smith M, Masunaga S, Moccarelli P, Santillo D, Seike N, Symons R, Torres J P M, Verta M, Varbelow G, Vijgen J, Watson A, Costner P, Woelz J, Wycisk P, Zennegg M. Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites-contemporary and future relevance and challenges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 2008, 15(5): 363–393
doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0024-1
83 Weber R, Watson A, Forter M, Oliaei F. Persistent organic pollutants and landfills- a review of past experiences and future challenges. Waste Management & Research , 2011, 29(1): 107–121
doi: 10.1177/0734242X10390730
84 Lamon L, Dalla Valle M, Critto A, Marcomini A. Introducing an integrated climate change perspective in POPs modelling, monitoring and regulation. Environmental Pollution , 2009, 157(7): 1971–1980
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.02.016
85 Macdonald R W, Mackay D, Li Y F, Hickie B. How will global climate change affect risks from long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment , 2003, 9(3): 643–660
doi: 10.1080/713609959
86 Schiedek D, Sundelin B, Readman J W, Macdonald R W. Interactions between climate change and contaminants. Marine Pollution Bulletin , 2007, 54(12): 1845–1856
doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.020
87 Noyes P D, McElwee M K, Miller H D, Clark B W, Van Tiem L A, Walcott K C, Erwin K N, Levin E D. The toxicology of climate change: Environmental contaminants in a warming world. Environment International , 2009, 35(6): 971–986
doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2009.02.006
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Wei WEN,Shuiyuan CHENG,Lei LIU,Gang WANG,Xiaoqi WANG. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Tangshan, China—Hybrid approaches for primary and secondary species apportionment[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(5): 6-.
[2] CHANG Miao, PENG Lijuan, WANG Shiwen. Development of environmental management system in China's financial sector[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2008, 2(2): 172-177.
[3] LI Lin, HAO Jiming, HU Jingnan. Analysis and prediction of the influence of energy utilization on air quality in Beijing[J]. Front.Environ.Sci.Eng., 2007, 1(3): 339-344.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed