Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front Envir Sci Eng Chin    2011, Vol. 5 Issue (4) : 489-496     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-011-0312-8
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluate HAA removal in biologically active carbon filters using the ICR database
Hsin-hsin TUNG1(), Yuefeng F. XIE2
1. Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan University, Taipei 10673, China; 2. Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, Middletown, PA 17057, USA
Download: PDF(227 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

The effects of biologically active carbon (BAC) filtration on haloacetic acid (HAA) levels in plant effluents and distribution systems were investigated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The results showed that average HAA5 concentrations in all locations were 20.4 μg·L-1 and 29.6 μg·L-1 in ICR plants with granular activated carbon (GAC) and ICR plants without GAC process, respectively. For plants without GAC, the highest HAA levels were observed in the quarters of April to June and July to September. However, for plants with GAC, the highest HAA levels were observed in the quarters of April to June and January to March. This HAA level profile inversely correlated well with water temperature, or biologic activity. For GAC plants, simulated distribution samples matched well with distribution system equivalent samples for Cl3AA and THMs. For plants with and without GAC, simulated distribution samples overestimated readily biodegradable HAAs in distribution systems. The study indicated that through HAA biodegradation, GAC process plays an important role in lowering HAA levels in finished drinking water.

Keywords biologically active carbon (BAC)      disinfection byproduct (DBP)      granular activated carbon (GAC)      haloacetic acid (HAA)      Information Collection Rule (ICR)     
Corresponding Author(s): TUNG Hsin-hsin,Email:htung@ntu.edu.tw   
Issue Date: 05 December 2011
 Cite this article:   
Hsin-hsin TUNG,Yuefeng F. XIE. Evaluate HAA removal in biologically active carbon filters using the ICR database[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng Chin, 2011, 5(4): 489-496.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-011-0312-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2011/V5/I4/489
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Hsin-hsin TUNG
Yuefeng F. XIE
concentrationTHM4HAA5HAA9
GACno GACGACno GACGACno GAC
FIL25.929.913.525.417.633.7
FINISH39.935.016.526.820.936.0
AVG157.344.523.431.831.941.5
AVG257.745.124.131.932.341.3
MAX64.548.724.030.832.140.1
DSE56.442.421.730.630.140.1
SDS55.240.822.432.031.041.8
average of all locations50.040.620.429.627.138.9
Tab.1  Average THM4, HAA5, and HAA9 concentrations for different locations /(μg·L)
Fig.1  Average (a) ClAA, (b) ClAA, and (c) THM4 concentrations from filter effluent [FIL] at each quarter
Fig.2  Average (a) ClAA, (b) BrAA, and (c) BrAA concentrations from filter effluent [FIL] at each quarter
Fig.3  Chloroform (CF), ClAA, ClAA levels in distribution system locations in (a) Quarter 1 and (b) Quarter 5
Fig.4  Average (a) ClAA, (b) ClAA, (c) chloroform concentrations for DSE and SDS samples in each quarter. -●- GAC_SDS; -○- no GAC_SDS; -?- GAC_DSE; -?- no GAC_DSE
Fig.5  Average THM4 and HAA5 concentrations from all distribution sample locations (FINISH, AVG1, AVG2, MAX) for plants with GAC and without GAC (no-GAC)
QuarterGAC plantsno GAC plants
10.430.86
20.600.94
30.771.10
40.651.00
50.390.89
60.550.98
average0.56±0.130.96±0.08
Tab.2  Ratio of HAA9/THM4 from all sample quarters
1 USEPA. National primary drinking water regulations: disinfectants and disinfection byproducts. Federal Register , 1998, 63(241): 69390–69476
2 Xie Y F. Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water: Formation, Analysis, and Control. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers , 2004, 161
3 USEPA. National primary drinking water regulations: monitoring requirements for public drinking water supplies; Final Rule. Federal Register , 1996, 61(94): 24354–24388
4 USEPA. ICR Treatment Study Database, Version 1.0. EPA 815-C-00–003. US Environmental Protection Agency , 2000
5 Obolensky A, Shukairy H, Blank V. Occurrence of haloacetic acids in ICR finished water and distribution systems. In: McGuire M J,McLain J L, ObolenskyA, editors. Information collection rule data analysis. Denver CO.: American Water Works Association Research Foundation , 2002, 111–140
6 Obolensky A, Singer P C. Analysis of halogen substitution patterns in DBPs using ICR data and their applications. In: 2003 Water Quality Technology Conference (Wqtc) Proceedings, Philadelphia. Denver CO.:American Water Works Association , 2003, 677–695
7 Obolensky A, Singer P C. Halogen substitution patterns among disinfection byproducts in the information collection rule database. Environmental Science & Technology , 2005, 39(8): 2719–2730
doi: 10.1021/es0489339 pmid:15884369
8 Roberts M G, Singer P C, Obolensky A. Comparing total HAA and total THM concentrations using ICR data. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2002, 94(1): 103–114
9 Obolensky A, Singer P C, Shukairy H M. Information collection rule data evaluation and analysis to support impacts on disinfection by-product formation. Journal of Environmental Engineering , 2007, 133(1): 53–63
doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2007)133:1(53)
10 Bond R G, Digiano F A. Evaluating GAC performance using the ICR database. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2004, 96(6): 96–104
11 Chen W J, Weisel C P. Halogenated DBP concentrations in a distribution system. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 1998, 90(4): 151–163
12 Shimazu H, Kouchi M, Sugita Y, Yonekura Y, Kumano H, Hashiwata K, Hirota T, Ozaki N, Fukushima T. Developing a model for disinfection by-products based on multiple regression analysis in a water distribution system. Journal of Water Supply: Research & Technology of the Aqua , 2005, 54(4): 225–237
13 Speight V L, Singer P C. Association between residual chlorine loss and HAA reduction in distribution systems. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2005, 97(2): 82–91
14 Tung H H, Xie Y F. Association between haloacetic acid degradation and heterotrophic bacteria in water distribution systems. Water Research , 2009, 43(4): 971–978
doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.041 pmid:19070347
15 Zhang P, Hozalski R M, Leach L H, Camper A K, Goslan E H, Parsons S A, Xie Y F, LaPara T M. Isolation and characterization of haloacetic acid-degrading Afipia spp. from drinking water. FEMS Microbiology Letters , 2009, 297(2): 203–208
doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01687.x pmid:19634207
16 Zhang P, Lapara T M, Goslan E H, Xie Y, Parsons S A, Hozalski R M. Biodegradation of haloacetic acids by bacterial isolates and enrichment cultures from drinking water systems. Environmental Science & Technology , 2009, 43(9): 3169–3175
doi: 10.1021/es802990e pmid:19534130
17 Tung H H, Unz R F, Xie Y F. HAA removal by GAC adsorption. Journal - American Water Works Association , 2006, 98(6): 107–112
18 Singer P C, Arora H, Dundore E, Brophy K, Weinberg H S. Control of haloacetic acid concentrations by biofiltration: a case study. In: Proceedings of the 1999 Water Quality Technology Conference, Tampa. Denver CO.: American Water Works Association , 1999
19 Wobma P, Pernitsky D, Bellamy B, Kjartanson K, Sears K. Biological filtration for ozone and chlorine DBP removal. Ozone Science and Engineering , 2000, 22(4): 393–413
doi: 10.1080/01919510009408783
20 Xie Y F, Zhou H. Biological active carbon for HAA removal: Part II, column study. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2002, 94(5): 126–134
21 Kim J, Kang B. DBPs removal in GAC filter-adsorber. Water Research , 2008, 42(1-2): 145–152
doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.07.040 pmid:17706265
22 Wang J Z, Summers R S, Miltner R J. Biofiltration performance. 1. relationship to biomass. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 1995, 87(12): 55–63
23 Emelko M B, Huck P M, Coffey B M, Smith E F. Effects of media, backwash, and temperature on full scale biological filtration. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2006, 98(12): 61–73
24 Wu H, Xie Y F. Effects of EBCT and water temperature on HAA removal using BAC. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2005, 97(11): 94–101
25 Zhang X, Minear R A. Decomposition of trihaloacetic acids and formation of the corresponding trihalomethanes in drinking water. Water Research , 2002, 36(14): 3665–3673
doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00072-6 pmid:12230213
26 Sérodes J B, Rodriguez M J, Li H, Bouchard C. Occurrence of THMs and HAAs in experimental chlorinated waters of the Quebec City area (Canada). Chemosphere , 2003, 51(4): 253–263
doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00840-8 pmid:12604077
27 Tung H, Chuang Y, Chang H, Wang G. Biodegradation in rapid sand filtration. In: 2008 Water Quality Technology Conference Proceedings, Cincinnati. Denver CO.: American Water Works Association , 2008
28 Levine A D, Baumann E R, Lind L B. Curbing THMs in small water-systems. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 1987, 79(5): 52–56
29 McRae B M, LaPara T M, Hozalski R M. Biodegradation of haloacetic acids by bacterial enrichment cultures. Chemosphere , 2004, 55(6): 915–925
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.11.048 pmid:15041296
30 Baribeau H, Krasner S W, Chinn R, Singer P C. Impact of biomass on the stability of HAAs and THMs in a simulated distribution system. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 2005, 97(2): 69–81
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Lian Yang, Qinxue Wen, Zhiqiang Chen, Ran Duan, Pan Yang. Impacts of advanced treatment processes on elimination of antibiotic resistance genes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 32-.
[2] Xiaomao WANG,Yuqin MAO,Shun TANG,Hongwei YANG,Yuefeng F. XIE. Disinfection byproducts in drinking water and regulatory compliance: A critical review[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2015, 9(1): 3-15.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed