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Frontiers of Earth Science

, Volume 12 Issue 1

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Effects of diurnal adjustment on biases and trends derived from inter-sensor calibrated AMSU-A data
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 1-16.
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Measurements of brightness temperatures from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) temperature sounding instruments onboard NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) have been extensively used for studying atmospheric temperature trends over the past several decades. Inter-sensor biases, orbital drifts and diurnal variations of atmospheric and surface temperatures must be considered before using a merged long-term time series of AMSU-A measurements from NOAA-15, -18, -19 and MetOp-A. We study the impacts of the orbital drift and orbital differences of local equator crossing times (LECTs) on temperature trends derivable from AMSU-A using near-nadir observations from NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A during 1998−2014 over the Amazon rainforest. The double difference method is firstly applied to estimation of inter-sensor biases between any two satellites during their overlapping time period. The inter-calibrated observations are then used to generate a monthly mean diurnal cycle of brightness temperature for each AMSU-A channel. A diurnal correction is finally applied each channel to obtain AMSU-A data valid at the same local time. Impacts of the inter-sensor bias correction and diurnal correction on the AMSU-A derived long-term atmospheric temperature trends are separately quantified and compared with those derived from original data. It is shown that the orbital drift and differences of LECT among different POESs induce a large uncertainty in AMSU-A derived long-term warming/cooling trends. After applying an inter-sensor bias correction and a diurnal correction, the warming trends at different local times, which are approximately the same, are smaller by half than the trends derived without applying these corrections.

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Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer
Shaogang ZENG, Yongen CAI
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 17-23.
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Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young’s modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

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Seasonal variation of the global mixed layer depth: comparison between Argo data and FIO-ESM
Yutong ZHANG, Haiming XU, Fangli QIAO, Changming DONG
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 24-36.
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The present study evaluates a simulation of the global ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) using the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIO-ESM). The seasonal variation of the global MLD from the FIO-ESM simulation is compared to Argo observational data. The Argo data show that the global ocean MLD has a strong seasonal variation with a deep MLD in winter and a shallow MLD in summer, while the spring and fall seasons act as transitional periods. Overall, the FIO-ESM simulation accurately captures the seasonal variation in MLD in most areas. It exhibits a better performance during summer and fall than during winter and spring. The simulated MLD in the Southern Hemisphere is much closer to observations than that in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the simulated MLD over the South Atlantic Ocean matches the observation best among the six areas. Additionally, the model slightly underestimates the MLD in parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, and slightly overestimates the MLD over the other ocean basins.

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Vegetation productivity responses to drought on tribal lands in the four corners region of the Southwest USA
Mohamed Abd Salam EL-VILALY, Kamel DIDAN, Stuart E. MARSH, Willem J.D. VAN LEEUWEN, Michael A. CRIMMINS, Armando Barreto MUNOZ
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 37-51.
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For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountain Western United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multi-sensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness (p<0.05), while 3.87% show an unexpected green up, with the remaining areas showing no consistent change. Vegetation in the area show a significant positive correlation with elevation and precipitation gradients. These results, while, confirming the region’s vegetation decline due to drought, shed further light on the future directions and challenges to the region’s already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surface-based climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

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Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in surface waters of the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during austral summer
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 52-62.
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This study reports the nitrogen uptake rate (using 15N tracer) of phytoplankton in surface waters of different frontal zones in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer of 2013. The investigated area encompasses four major frontal systems, i.e., the subtropical front (STF), subantarctic front (SAF), polar front-1 (PF1) and polar front-2 (PF2). Southward decrease of surface water temperature was observed, whereas surface salinity did not show any significant trend. Nutrient (NO3 and SiO44−) concentrations increased southward from STF to PF; while ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2) and phosphate (PO43−) remained comparatively stable. Analysis of nutrient ratios indicated potential N-limited conditions at the STF and SAF but no such scenario was observed for PF. In terms of phytoplankton biomass, PF1 was found to be the most productive followed by SAF, whereas PF2 was the least productive region. Nitrate uptake rate increased with increasing latitude, as no systematic spatial variation was discerned for NH4+ and urea (CO(NH2)2). Linear relationship between nitrate and total N-uptake reveals that the studied area is capable of exporting up to 60% of the total production to the deep ocean if the environmental settings are favorable. Like N-uptake rates the f-ratio also increased towards PF region indicating comparatively higher new production in the PF than in the subtropics. The moderately high average f-ratio (0.53) indicates potentially near equal contributions by new production and regenerated production to the total productivity in the study area. Elevation in N-uptake rates with declining temperature suggests that the SO with its vast quantity of cool water could play an important role in drawing down the atmospheric CO2 through the “solubility pump”.

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Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification
Chen CHENG, Chunjuan BI, Dongqi WANG, Zhongjie YU, Zhenlou CHEN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 63-71.
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This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L–1 and were correlated with temperature (P<0.05). Dry deposition of PAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60–92.15 mg·L–1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m–2·d–1 and 4.06 mg·m–2·d–1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

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Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling
Siyuan LIU, Mengyao HAN, Xudong WU, Xiaofang WU, Zhi LI, Xiaohua XIA, Xi JI
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 72-85.
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With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

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The effects of sorting by aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of surface materials: a wind tunnel experiment
Xunming WANG, Lili LANG, Ting HUA, Caixia ZHANG, Hui LI
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 86-94.
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The geochemical characteristics of aeolian and surface materials in potential source areas of dust are frequently employed in environmental reconstructions as proxies of past climate and as source tracers of aeolian sediments deposited in downwind areas. However, variations in the geochemical characteristics of these aeolian deposits that result from near-surface winds are currently poorly understood. In this study, we collected surface samples from the Ala Shan Plateau (a major potential dust source area in Central Asia) to determine the influence of aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of aeolian transported materials. Correlation analyses show that compared with surface materials, the elements in transported materials (e.g., Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Mg, P, Rb, Co, Cr, Na, Nb, Si, and Zr) were subjected to significant sorting by aeolian processes, and the sorting also varied among different particle size fractions and elements. Variations in wind velocity were significantly correlated with the contents of Cr, Ga, Sr, Ca, Y, Nd, Zr, Nb, Ba, and Al, and with the Zr/Al, Zr/Rb, K/Ca, Sr/Ca, Rb/Sr, and Ca/Al ratios. Given the great variation in the geochemical characteristics of materials transported under different aeolian processes relative to those of the source materials, these results indicate that considerable uncertainty may be introduced to analyses by using surface materials to trace the potential source areas of aeolian deposits that accumulate in downwind areas.

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Impact of water depth on the distribution of iGDGTs in the surface sediments from the northern South China Sea: applicability of TEX86 in marginal seas
Jiali CHEN, Pengju HU, Xing LI, Yang YANG, Jinming SONG, Xuegang LI, Huamao YUAN, Ning LI, Xiaoxia LÜ
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 95-107.
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The paleothermometer on the base of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs) has been widely applied to various marine settings to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, it remains uncertain how well this proxy reconstructs SSTs in marginal seas. In this study, we analyze the environmental factors governing distribution of iGDGTs in surface sediments to assess the applicability of paleothermometer in the South China Sea (SCS). Individual iGDGT concentrations increase gradually eastwards. Redundancy analysis based on the relative abundance of an individual iGDGT compound and environmental parameters suggests that water depth is the most influential factor to the distribution of iGDGTs, because thaumarchaeota communities are water-depth dependent. Interestingly, the SST difference (ΔT) between derived temperature and remote-sensing SST is less than 1°C in sediments with water depth>200 m, indicating that was the robust proxy to trace the paleo-SST in the region if water depth is greater than 200 m.

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Spatiotemporal changes in vegetation net primary productivity in the arid region of Northwest China, 2001 to 2012
Zhen LI, Jinghu PAN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 108-124.
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Net primary productivity (NPP) is recognized as an important index of ecosystem conditions and a key variable of the terrestrial carbon cycle. It also represents the comprehensive effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on terrestrial vegetation. In this study, the temporal-spatial pattern of NPP for the period 2001–2012 was analyzed using a remote sensing-based carbon model (i.e., the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach, CASA) in addition to other methods, such as linear trend analysis, standard deviation, and the Hurst index. Temporally, NPP showed a significant increasing trend for the arid region of Northwest China (ARNC), with an annual increase of 2.327 g C. Maximum and minimum productivity values appeared in July and December, respectively. Spatially, the NPP was relatively stable in the temperate and warm-temperate desert regions of Northwest China, while temporally, it showed an increasing trend. However, some attention should be given to the northwestern warm-temperate desert region, where there is severe continuous degradation and only a slight improvement trend.

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Magnetic evidence for heavy metal pollution of topsoil in Shanghai, China
Guan WANG, Yuan LIU, Jiao CHEN, Feifan REN, Yuying CHEN, Fangzhou YE, Weiguo ZHANG
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 125-133.
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This study presents the results obtained from magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) concentration measurements of soil profiles collected from arable land and urban parks in Baoshan District, an industrial district of Shanghai, China. The study focuses on the investigation of vertical variations in magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations and on correlations between magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles. The results demonstrate that magnetic enhancement in the surface layer of the soil profile is associated with increased heavy metal pollution. The enrichment factors (EF) and the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI-EF) are calculated for estimating the level of heavy metal pollution of soil profiles in the study. The significant positive correlations between heavy metal contents, enrichment factors (EF), Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-CF), modified Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-EF), and magnetic susceptibility ( c) indicate that much of the heavy metal contamination in the study area is linked to combustion derived particulate emissions. The results confirm that the combined magnetic measurement and heavy metal concentration analysis could provide useful information for soil monitoring in urban environments. However, the use of magnetic technique to locate the heavy metal pollution boundary in the soil profile of this studied area should be confirmed by further geochemical analysis.

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Clay mineralogy and its palaeoclimatic significance in the Luochuan loess-palaeosols over ~1.3 Ma, Shaanxi, northwestern China
Changdok WON, Hanlie HONG, Feng CHENG, Qian FANG, Chaowen WANG, Lulu ZHAO, Gordon Jock CHURCHMAN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 134-147.
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To understand climate changes recorded in the Luochuan loess-palaeosols, Shaanxi province, northwestern China, clay mineralogy was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. XRD results show that clay mineral compositions in the Luochuan loess-palaeosols are dominantly illite, with minor chlorite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite-smectite mixed-layer clays (I/S). Illite is the most abundant species in the sediments, with a content of 61%–83%. The content of chlorite ranges from 5%–22%, and the content of kaolinite ranges from 5%–19%. Smectite (or I/S) occurs discontinuously along the loess profile, with a content of 0–8%. The Kübler index of illite (IC) ranges from 0.255°–0.491°, and the illite chemical index (ICI) ranges from 0.294–0.394. The CIA values of the loess-palaeosols are 61.9–69.02, and the R3+/(R3+ + R2+ + M+) values are 0.508–0.589. HRTEM observations show that transformation of illite to illite-smectite has occurred in both the loess and palaeosol, suggesting that the Luochuan loess-palaeosols have experienced a certain degree of chemical weathering. The Luochuan loess-palaeosols have the same clay mineral assemblage along the profile. However, the relative contents of clay mineral species, CIA, ICI, and IC values fluctuate frequently along the profile, and all these parameters display a similar trend. Moreover, climate changes suggested by the clay index are consistent with variations in the deep-sea δ18O records and the magnetic susceptibility value, and thus, climate changes in the Luochuan region have been controlled by global climate change.

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The pore structure and fractal characteristics of shales with low thermal maturity from the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China
Haihai HOU, Longyi SHAO, Yonghong LI, Zhen LI, Wenlong ZHANG, Huaijun WEN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 148-159.
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The continental shales from the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation of the northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China, have been investigated in recent years because of their shale gas potential. In this study, a total of twenty-two shale samples were collected from the YQ-1 borehole in the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents, pore structure parameters, and fractal characteristics of the samples were investigated using TOC analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments, and fractal analysis. The results show that the average pore size of the Shimengou shales varied from 8.149 nm to 20.635 nm with a mean value of 10.74 nm, which is considered mesopore-sized. The pores of the shales are mainly inkbottle- and slit-shaped. The sedimentary environment plays an essential role in controlling the TOC contents of the low maturity shales, with the TOC values of shales from deep to semi-deep lake facies (mean: 5.23%) being notably higher than those of the shore-shallow lake facies (mean: 0.65%). The fractal dimensions range from 2.4639 to 2.6857 with a mean of 2.6122, higher than those of marine shales, which indicates that the pore surface was rougher and the pore structure more complex in these continental shales. The fractal dimensions increase with increasing total pore volume and total specific surface area, and with decreasing average pore size. With increasing TOC contents in shales, the fractal dimensions increase first and then decrease, with the highest value occurring at 2% of TOC content, which is in accordance with the trends between the TOC and both total specific surface area and total pore volume. The pore structure complexity and pore surface roughness of these low-maturity shales would be controlled by the combined effects of both sedimentary environments and the TOC contents.

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Live microbial cells adsorb Mg2+ more effectively than lifeless organic matter
Xuan QIU, Yanchen YAO, Hongmei WANG, Yong DUAN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 160-169.
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The Mg2+ content is essential in determining different Mg-CaCO3 minerals. It has been demonstrated that both microbes and the organic matter secreted by microbes are capable of allocating Mg2+ and Ca2+ during the formation of Mg-CaCO3, yet detailed scenarios remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism that microbes and microbial organic matter potentially use to mediate the allocation of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in inoculating systems, microbial mats and four marine bacterial strains (Synechococcus elongatus, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., and Desulfovibrio vulgaris) were incubated in artificial seawater media with Mg/Ca ratios ranging from 0.5 to 10.0. At the end of the incubation, the morphology of the microbial mats and the elements adsorbed on them were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy diffraction spectra (EDS), respectively. The content of Mg2+ and Ca2+ adsorbed by the extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) and cells of the bacterial strains were analyzed with atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The functional groups on the surface of the cells and EPS of S. elongatus were estimated using automatic potentiometric titration combined with a chemical equilibrium model. The results show that live microbial mats generally adsorb larger amounts of Mg2+ than Ca2+, while this rarely is the case for autoclaved microbial mats. A similar phenomenon was also observed for the bacterial strains. The living cells adsorb more Mg2+ than Ca2+, yet a reversed trend was observed for EPS. The functional group analysis indicates that the cell surface of S. elongatus contains more basic functional groups (87.24%), while the EPS has more acidic and neutral functional groups (83.08%). These features may be responsible for the different adsorption behavior of Mg2+ and Ca2+ by microbial cells and EPS. Our work confirms the differential Mg2+ and Ca2+ mediation by microbial cells and EPS, which may provide insight into the processes that microbes use to induce Mg-carbonate formation.

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The effect of wind on the dispersal of a tropical small river plume
Junpeng ZHAO, Wenping GONG, Jian SHEN
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 170-190.
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Wanquan River is a small river located in Hainan, a tropical island in China. As the third largest river in Hainan, the river plume plays an important role in the regional terrigenous mass transport, coastal circulation, and the coral reef’s ecosystem. Studies have shown that wind forcings significantly influence river plume dynamics. In this study, wind effects on the dispersal of the river plume and freshwater transport were examined numerically using a calibrated, unstructured, finite volume numerical model (FVCOM). Both wind direction and magnitude were determined to influence plume dispersal. Northeasterly (downwelling-favorable) winds drove freshwater down-shelf while southeasterly (onshore) winds drove water up-shelf (in the sense of Kelvin wave propagation) , and were confined near the coast. Southwesterly (upwelling-favorable) and northwesterly (offshore) winds transport more freshwater offshore. The transport flux is decomposed into an advection, a vertical shear, and an oscillatory component. The advection flux dominates the freshwater transport in the coastal area and the vertical shear flux is dominant in the offshore area. For the upwelling-favorable wind, the freshwater transport becomes more controlled by the advection transport with an increase in wind stress, due to enhanced vertical mixing. The relative importance of wind forcing and buoyancy force was investigated. It was found that, when the Wedderburn number is larger than one, the plume was dominated by wind forcing, although the importance of wind varies in different parts of the plume. The water column stratification decreased as a whole under the prevailing southwesterly wind, with the exception of the up-shelf and offshore areas.

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Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: geochronological and geochemical evidence from granitoids in the northern margin of Alxa, Western China
Xin SHA, Jinrong WANG, Wanfeng CHEN, Zheng LIU, Xinwei ZHAI, Jinlong MA, Shuhua WANG
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 191-214.
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The Paleo-Asian Ocean (Southern Mongolian Ocean) ophiolitic belts and massive granitoids are exposed in the Alxa block, in response to oceanic subduction processes. In this work, we report petrographic, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb age data of some granitoid intrusions from the northern Alxa. Zircon U-Pb dating for the quartz diorite, tonalite, monzogranite, and biotite granite yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 302±9.2 Ma, 246.5±4.6 Ma, 235±4.4 Ma, and 229.5±5.6 Ma, respectively. The quartz diorites (~302 Ma) exhibit geochemical similarities to adakites, likely derived from partial melting of the initially subducted Chaganchulu back-arc oceanic slab. The tonalites (~246.5 Ma) display geochemical affinities of I-type granites. They were probably derived by fractional crystallization of the modified lithospheric mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a volcanic arc setting. The monzogranites (~235 Ma) are characterized by low Al2O3, but high Y and Yb with notably negative Eu anomalies. In contrast, the biotite granites (~229.5 Ma) show high Al2O3 but low Y and Yb with steep HREE patterns and the absence of negative Eu anomalies. Elemental data suggested that the biotite granites were likely derived from a thickened lower crust, but the monzogranites originated from a thin crust. Our data suggested that the initial subduction of the Chaganchulu oceanic slab towards the Alxa block occurred at ~ 302 Ma. This subduction process continued to the Early Triassic (~246 Ma) and the basin was finally closed before the Middle Triassic (~235 Ma). Subsequently, the break-off of the subducted slab triggered asthenosphere upwelling (240–230 Ma).

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Earthquake hazard potential in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey: seismotectonic b and Dc-values and precursory quiescence Z-value
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 215-236.
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The Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey is one of the most seismically and tectonically active regions due to the frequent occurrence of earthquakes. Thus, the main goal of this study is to analyze the regional and temporal characteristics of seismicity in the Eastern Anatolia in terms of the seismotectonic b-value, fractal dimension Dc-value, precursory seismic quiescence Z-value, and their interrelationships. This study also seeks to obtain a reliable empirical relation between b and Dc-values and to evaluate the temporal changes of these parameters as they relate to the earthquake potential of the region. A more up-to-date relation of Dc =2.55 0.39*b is found with a very strong negative correlation coefficient (r=−0.95) by using the orthogonal regression method. The b-values less than 1.0 and the Dc-values greater than 2.2 are observed in the Northeast Anatolian Fault Zone, Aşkale, Erzurum, Iğdır and Çaldıran Faults, Doğubeyazıt Fault Zone, around the Genç Fault, the western part of the Bitlis-Zagros Thrust Zone, Pülümür and Karakoçan Faults, and the Sancak-Uzunpınar Fault Zone. In addition, the regions having small b-values and large Z-values are calculated around the Genç, Pülümür and Karakoçan Faults as well as the Sancak-Uzunpınar Fault Zone. Remarkably, the combinations of these seismotectonic parameters could reveal the earthquake hazard potential in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey, thus creating an increased interest in these anomaly regions.

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Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Miocene Qom Formation, northwest of the Qom, Central Iran
Front. Earth Sci.. 2018, 12 (1): 237-251.
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Near Dochah, in the type area of the Qom Formation, Central Iran, the Miocene is partly developed in pelagic facies. From the 894.1 meter thick, ‘a to e’ members of this section, 152 samples were collected. Abundant planktonic foraminifera let us correlate the study section with the global planktonic foraminifera biozonations. High diversity of foraminifera in the study section allow us to adapt the study succession to global biozonations. Twenty-seven genera and thirty-four species are reported for the first time from the Dochah section. First reports of Praeorbulina sicana and Praeorbulina transitoria in the upper part of this section led to recognition of the Praeorbulina sicana lower occurrence subzone (M5a) biozone with a late Late Burdigalian age.

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18 articles