Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 262-276     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-018-0740-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Evolution model of a modern delta fed by a seasonal river in Daihai Lake, North China: determined from ground-penetrating radar and trenches
Beibei LIU1, Chengpeng TAN2,3(), Xinghe YU4, Xin SHAN3, Shunli LI4
1. College of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
2. School of Geoscience and Technology, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China
3. Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology, First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China
4. School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
Download: PDF(4952 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

While deltas fed by seasonal rivers are common in modern sedimentary environments, their characteristics remain unclear as compared to those fed by perennial rivers. This study identifies a small delta discharged by a seasonal stream flowing into Daihai Lake, in northern China, which is driven by ephemeral and high-energy flood events. Detailed 3D facies architecture was analyzed using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and sedimentary logs from outcrop and trenches. Four types of radar surfaces, including truncations of underlying inclined strata, weak reflections, and depositional surface of downlap and onlap, were identified. Six radar facies (high-angle oblique-tangential, low-angle subparallel, gently plane parallel, plane-parallel, chaotic, and continuous strong reflection) were identified based on distinctive reflections, including amplitude, continuity, dip, and termination patterns. Five depositional units (Unit A to E) were documented from proximal to distal delta. Seasonal discharge signatures include significant grain-size decrease over short distance, abundant Froude supercritical flow sedimentary structures, poorly developed barforms, and small-scale scour and fill structures. Records of lake-level and sediment budget were evaluated over the past 60 years. In highstand stage (1960–1980), amalgamated channel (Units A and B), and delta front (Unit C) were deposited. In slope stage (1980–1996), the lower deposits (Units A, B, C) were eroded by Unit D with a distinct truncation surface. In lowstand stage, most eroded sediments bypassed the incised channel and accumulated in the distal part, in which a new depositional unit was formed (Unit E). The model demonstrates that deltas fed by seasonal rivers tend to accumulate large amounts of sediments carried by high magnitude floods within short periods.

Keywords delta evolution      seasonal discharge      ground-penetrating radar      sedimentary architecture      Daihai Lake     
Corresponding Authors: Chengpeng TAN   
Just Accepted Date: 09 November 2018   Online First Date: 18 December 2018    Issue Date: 16 May 2019
 Cite this article:   
Beibei LIU,Chengpeng TAN,Xinghe YU, et al. Evolution model of a modern delta fed by a seasonal river in Daihai Lake, North China: determined from ground-penetrating radar and trenches[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2019, 13(2): 262-276.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-018-0740-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/262
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Beibei LIU
Chengpeng TAN
Xinghe YU
Xin SHAN
Shunli LI
Fig.1  Study site and location of Daihai Lake. (a) A shaded topographic map of Daihai Lake, showing the drainage system. Data are from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Monitoring Mission). (b) Oblique view of the Bantanzi alluvial system from Google Earth, showing headwater tributaries, main channel and a terminal flow expansion. The area in the dashed block is the study area.
Fig.2  Oblique view of the study delta with locations of the GPR profile (red line) and Trenches T5?T16. The characteristics of topography including the upper terrace, slope, and lower terrace are also shown.
Fig.3  Classification of the defined radar surfaces and radar facies with corresponding sedimentologic records in outcrops and trenches. The radar surfaces fall into two groups (depositional and erosional), and the radar facies fall into three groups (inclined, plane, and irregular).
Fig.4  Five separated GPR profiles with interpreted radar facies and surfaces, showing the characteristics from the proximal to distal zones. (a) Channelized unit A and B were stacked and bounded by internal erosional radar surfaces which were truncated by the uppermost unit D. (b) Unit A pinched out longitudinally and eroded the underlying Unit C. The uppermost Unit D still truncated the lower deposits. (c) Unit C changed from gently plane parallel reflectors to high-angle clinoform. (d) Unit C extended along the relatively steep slope and thinned in the distal part. Unit E onlapped above Unit C. (e) Unit E was filled by oblique and plane reflectors. The locations of each profile are noted in Fig. 2. See details in the text.
Fig.5  Photographs and corresponding sedimentary sequences of trenches T5?T16.
Fig.6  Integrated profile of individual GPR profiles (a), radar facies and surfaces (b), and identified depositional units (c). (d) Trenches T5?T16 correspond well with the radar profile, showing the longitudinal change of architecture. See details in the text.
Fig.7  Models of architectural elements based on geometry, scale, and internal fills. The model includes two basic architecture types (channel and clinoform), which can be subdivided into four types.
Fig.8  Satellite images of Daihai Lake at different ages showing the decline in lake area from 1982 to 2015.
Fig.9  (a) Changes in the lake area and elevation since the 1960s. The recent lake elevation is 1219 m, and the green dash line was estimated without data. (b) Changes in rainfall, evaporation, and input discharge of Daihai Lake since the 1960s. The green dash line was estimated without data. Three stages can be identified from the quantitative data. Stage I: lake elevation was relatively stable at around 1225?1226 m from 1960 to 1982. Stage II: lake elevation declined rapidly from 1225 m to 1221 m in 16 years. Stage III: lake elevation declined slowly from 1221 m to 1219 m in about 20 years. These three stages correspond to the highstand stage, slope stage, and lowstand stage, respectively.
Fig.10  Oblique view of the study delta associated with a longitudinal profile showing the plane position in the sedimentologic record. Combined with the lake-level change curve, it shows the paleo-shoreline in 1980, 1996, and 2015, which correspond to the topography key points (upper terrace, slope, and lower terrace). Splay lobes (dashed fan shape) at the front indicate the pulse of flood events. The progressive shoreline (dashed line) indicates the gradual decline of lake level in the recent decades.
Fig.11  Evolution model of the Bantanzi system showing three stages based on the architectures and facies characteristics with changes in lake-level change and sediment supply.
1 SAhmed, J P Bhattacharya, D E Garza, Y Li (2014). Facies architecture and stratigraphic evolution of a river-dominated delta front, Turonian Ferron Sandstone, Utah, U.S.A. J Sediment Res, 84(2): 97–121
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2014.6
2 JAlexander, C Fielding (1997). Gravel antidunes in the tropical Burdekin River, Queensland, Australia. Sedimentology, 44(2): 327–337
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1997.tb01527.x
3 J PAllen, C R Fielding, M R Gibling, M C Rygel (2014). Recognizing products of palaeoclimate fluctuation in the fluvial stratigraphic record: an example from the Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Sedimentology, 61(5): 1332–1381
https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12102
4 J PAllen, C R Fielding, M C Rygel, M R Gibling (2013). Deconvolving signals of tectonic and climatic controls from continental basins: an example from the Late Paleozoic Cumberland Basin, Atlantic Canada. J Sediment Res, 83(10): 847–872
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2013.58
5 J R LAllen (1984). Parallel lamination developed from upper stage plane beds; a model based on the larger coherent structures of the turbulent boundary layer. Sediment Geol, 39(3‒4): 227–242
https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(84)90052-6
6 G SBaker, H M Jol (2007). Stratigraphic analyses using GPR. Spec Pap Geol Soc Am, 432: 1‒181
https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1130/SPE432
7 J LBest, P J Ashworth, C S Bristow, J Roden (2003). Three-dimensional sedimentary architecture of a large mid-channel sand braid bar, Jamuna River, Bangladesh. J Sediment Res, 73(4): 516–530
https://doi.org/10.1306/010603730516
8 JBest, J Bridge (1992). The morphology and dynamics of low amplitude bedwaves upon upper stage plane beds and the preservation of planar laminae. Sedimentology, 39(5): 737–752
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1992.tb02150.x
9 J PBhattacharya (2006). Deltas. In: Posamentier H W, Walker R G, eds. Facies Models Revisited. Special publication of Society for Sedimentary Geology, 84: 237–292
10 PBilli (2007). Morphology and sediment dynamics of ephemeral stream terminal distributary systems in the Kobo Basin (northern Welo, Ethiopia). Geomophology, 85(1‒2): 98–113
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.03.012
11 PBilli (2008). Bedforms and sediment transport processes in the ephemeral streams of Kobo basin, Northern Ethiopia. Catena, 75(1): 5–17
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2008.04.002
12 PBilli (2011). Flash flood sediment transport in a steep sand-bed ephemeral stream. Int J Sediment Res, 26(2): 193–209
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(11)60086-3
13 J SBridge, J L Best (1988). Flow, sediment transport and bedform dynamics over the transition from dunes to upper-stage plane beds: implications for the formation of planar laminae. Sedimentology, 35(5): 753–763
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1988.tb01249.x
14 C S CBristow, H MJol (2003). An introduction to ground penetrating radar (GPR) in sediments. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ, 211(1): 1–7
https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.211.01.01
15 L ABuatois, N Santiago, MHerrera, PPlink-Björklund, RSteel, MEspin, KParra (2012). Sedimentological and ichnological signatures of changes in wave, river and tidal influence along a Neogene tropical deltaic shoreline. Sedimentology, 59(5): 1568–1612
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2011.01317.x
16 PCallot, F Odonne, E JDebroas, AMaillard, DDhont, CBasile, GHoareau (2009). Three-dimensional architecture of submarine slide surfaces and associated soft-sediment deformation in the Lutetian Sobrarbe deltaic complex (Ainsa, Spanish Pyrenees). Sedimentology, 56(5): 1226–1249
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.01030.x
17 M J BCartigny, DVentra, GPostma, J HVan Den Berg (2014). Morphodynamics and sedimentary structures of bedforms under supercritical-flow conditions: new insights from flume experiments. Sedimentology, 61(3): 712–748
https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12076
18 TChakraborty, P Ghosh (2010). The geomorphology and sedimentology of the Tista megafan, Darjeeling Himalaya: implications for megafan building processes. Geomorphology, 115(3–4): 252–266
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.035
19 R MCorbeanu, K Soegaard, R BSzerbiak, J BThurmond, G AMcmechan, DWang (2001). Detailed internal architecture of a fluvial channel sandstone determined from outcrop, cores, and 3-d ground-penetrating radar: example from the middle cretaceous ferron sandstone, east-central utah. AAPG Bull, 85(9): 1583–1608
20 TDemko (2015). Evidence of supercritical flow during deposition in delta front clinothems of the Eocene Sant Llorenç del Munt fan delta, Ebro Basin, Spain. In: Proceedings of 31st IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, Kraków, Poland, 150
21 PDietrich, J F Ghienne, A Normandeau, PLajeunesse (2016). Upslope-migrating bedforms in a proglacial sandur delta: cyclic steps from river-derived underflows? J Sediment Res, 86(2): 113–123
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2016.4
22 EEji Uba, C Heubeck, CHulka (2005). Facies analysis and basin architecture of the Neogene Subandean synorogenic wedge, southern Bolivia. Sediment Geol, 180(3–4): 91–123
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.06.013
23 C RFielding (2006). Upper flow regime sheets, lenses and scour fills: extending the range of architectural elements for fluvial sediment bodies. Sediment Geol, 190(1‒4): 227–240
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.05.009
24 C RFielding, J P Allen, J Alexander, M GGibling (2009). Facies model for fluvial systems in the seasonal tropics and subtropics. Geology, 37(7): 623–626
https://doi.org/10.1130/G25727A.1
25 C RFielding, J P Allen, J Alexander, M RGibling, M CRygel, J HCalder (2011). Fluvial systems and their deposits in hot, seasonal semiarid and subhumid settings: modern and ancient examples. In: Davidson S K, Leleu S, North C P, eds. From River to Rock Record: The Preservation of Fluvial Sediments and their Subsequent Interpretation. SEPM special publication, 97: 89–111
26 JFiore, A Pugin, MBeres (2002). Sedimentological and GPR studies of subglacial deposits in the Joux Valley (Vaud, Switzerland): backset accretion in an esker followed by an erosive jokulhlaup. Geogr Phys Quat, 56(1): 19‒32
https://doi.org/10.7202/008602ar
27 PFralick (1999). Paleohydraulics of chute-and-pool structures in a Paleoproterozoic fluvial sandstone. Sediment Geol, 125(3‒4): 129–134
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0037-0738(99)00013-5
28 A TFricke, B A Sheets, C A Nittrouer, M A Allison, A S Ogston (2015). An examination of Froude-supercritical flows and cyclic steps on a subaqueous lacustrine delta, Lake Chelan, Washington, U.S.A. J Sediment Res, 85(7): 754–767
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2015.48
29 M RGani, J P Bhattacharya (2007). Basic building blocks and process variability of a Cretaceous delta: internal facies architecture reveals a more dynamic interaction of river, wave, and tidal processes than is indicated by external shape. J Sediment Res, 77(4): 284–302
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2007.023
30 FGarcía-García, HCorbí, J MSoria, CViseras (2011). Architecture analysis of a river flood-dominated delta during an overall sea-level rise (early Pliocene, SE Spain). Sediment Geol, 237(1–2): 102–113
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2011.02.010
31 M MGrimm, E E Wohl, R D Jarrett (1995). Coarse-sediment distribution as evidence of an elevation limit for flash flooding, Bear Creek, Colorado. Geomorphology, 14(3): 199–210
https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-555X(95)00037-6
32 MGugliotta, C E Kurcinka, R W Dalrymple, S S Flint, D M Hodgson (2016). Decoupling seasonal fluctuations in fluvial discharge from the tidal signature in ancient deltaic deposits: an example from the Neuquénn Basin, Argentina. J Geol Soc London, 173(1): 94–107
https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2015-030
33 B AHampton, B K Horton (2007). Sheetflow fluvial processes in a rapidly subsiding basin, Altiplano plateau, Bolivia. Sedimentology, 54(5): 1121–1148
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2007.00875.x
34 QHuang, J Jiang (1999). Analysis of water level descent in Daihai Lake. J Lake Sci, 11(4): 304–310 (in Chinese)
https://doi.org/10.18307/1999.0403
35 CHulka, C Heubeck (2010). Composition and provenance history of late Cenozoic sediments in Southeastern Bolivia: implications for Chaco foreland basin evolution and Andean uplift. J Sediment Res, 80(3): 288–299
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2010.029
36 C LJohnson, S A Graham (2004). Sedimentology and reservoir architecture of a synrift lacustrine delta, southeastern Mongolia. J Sediment Res, 74(6): 770–785
https://doi.org/10.1306/051304740770
37 IKarcz, D Kersey (1980). Experimental study of free-surface flow instability and bedforms in shallow flows. Sediment Geol, 27(4): 263–300
https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(80)90016-0
38 JLang, C Brandes, JWinsemann (2017a). Erosion and deposition by supercritical density flows during channel avulsion and backfilling: field examples from coarse-grained deepwater channel-levée complexes (Sandino Forearc Basin, southern Central America). Sediment Geol, 349: 79–102
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.01.002
39 JLang, J Sievers, MLoewer, JIgel, J Winsemann (2017b). 3D architecture of cyclic-step and antidune deposits in glacigenic subaqueous fan and delta settings: integrating outcrop and ground-penetrating radar data. Sediment Geol, 362: 83–100
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.10.011
40 JLang, J Winsemann (2013). Lateral and vertical facies relationships of bedforms deposited by aggrading supercritical flows: from cyclic steps to humpback dunes. Sediment Geol, 296(14): 36–54
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2013.08.005
41 HLi (1972). The formation of Daihai Lake and its topographical features. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science), 1: 98‒110 (in Chinese)
42 D GLowe, R W C Arnott (2016). Composition and architecture of braided and sheetflood-dominated ephemeral fluvial strata in the Cambrian–Ordovician Potsdam Group: a case example of the morphodynamics of early Phanerozoic fluvial systems and climate change. J Sediment Res, 86(6): 587–612
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2016.39
43 I ALunt, J S Bridge (2004). Evolution and deposits of a gravelly braid bar, Sagavanirktok River, Alaska. Sedimentology, 51(3): 415–432
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2004.00628.x
44 O JMartinsen (1989). Styles of soft-sediment deformation on a Namurian (Carboniferous) delta slope, Western Irish Namurian Basin, Ireland. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ, 41(1): 167–177
https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1989.041.01.13
45 ANeal (2004). Ground-penetrating radar and its use in sedimentology: principles, problems and progress. Earth Sci Rev, 66(3‒4): 261–330
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.01.004
46 COlariu, J P Bhattacharya, M I Leybourne, S K Boss, R J Stern (2012). Interplay between river discharge and topography of the basin floor in a hyperpycnal lacustrine delta. Sedimentology, 59(2): 704–728
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2011.01272.x
47 G GOri, M Roveri, GNichols (1991). Architectural patterns in large-scale Gilbert-type delta complexes, Pleistocene, Gulf of Corinth, Greece. In: Miall A D, Tyler N, eds. The Three-Dimensional Facies Architecture of Terrigenous Clastic Sediments and Its Implications for Hydrocarbon Discovery and Recovery – Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology. Society for Sedimentary Geology, 3: 207–216
48 MPisarska-Jamroży , PWeckwerth (2013). Soft-sediment deformation structures in a Pleistocene glaciolacustrine delta and their implications for the recognition of subenvironments in delta deposits. Sedimentology, 60(3): 637–665
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2012.01354.x
49 PPlink-Björklund (2015). Morphodynamics of rivers strongly affected by monsoon precipitation: review of depositional style and forcing factors. Sediment Geol, 323: 110–147
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2015.04.004
50 GPostma (1984). Slumps and their deposits in delta-front and slopes. Geology, 12(1): 27–30
https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<27:SATDIF>2.0.CO;2
51 D MPowell, I Reid, J BLaronne (2001). Evolution of bed load grain size distribution with increasing flow strength and the effect of flow duration on the caliber of bed load sediment yield in ephemeral gravel bed rivers. Water Resour Res, 37(5): 1463–1474
https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900342
52 EReimnitz (2000). An overview of the Lena River Delta setting: geology, tectonics, geomorphology, and hydrology. J Coast Res, 16(4): 1083–1093
53 C WRhee, S K Chough (1993). The Cretaceous Pyonghae Basin, southeast Korea: sequential development of crevasse splay and avulsion in a terminal alluvial fan. Sediment Geol, 83(1‒2): 37–52
https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(93)90181-4
54 RRhodes, K Goodwin, J PJohnson (2013). Transported and surface grain size changes during experimental flash floods. In: Proceddings of American Geophyiscal Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco
55 H USchmincke, R VFisher, A CWaters (1973). Antidune and chute and pool structures in the base surge deposits of the Laacher See area, Germany. Sedimentology, 20(4): 553–574
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1973.tb01632.x
56 XShan, X Yu, P DClift, CTan, L Jin, MLi, WLi (2015). The ground penetrating radar facies and architecture of a Paleo-spit from Huangqihai Lake, North China: implications for genesis and evolution. Sediment Geol, 323: 1–14
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2015.04.010
57 BSpinewine, O E Sequeiros, M H Garcia, R T Beaubouef, T Sun, BSavoye, GParkers (2009). Experiments on wedge-shaped deep sea sedimentary deposits in minibasins and/or on channel levees emplaced by turbidity currents. Part II. Morphodynamic evolution of the wedge and of the associated bedforms. J Sediment Res, 79(8): 608–628
https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2009.065
58 CTan, X Yu, BLiu, JQu, L Zhang, DHuang (2017). Conglomerate categories in coarse-grained deltas and their controls on hydrocarbon reservoir distribution: a case study of the Triassic Baikouquan Formation, Mahu Depression, NW China. Petrol Geosci, 23(4): 403–414
https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2016-017
59 CTan, X Yu, BLiu, LXu, S Li, SFeng, YTang (2018). Sedimentary structures formed under upper-flow-regime in seasonal river system: a case study of Bantanzi River, Daihai Lake, Inner Mongolia. Journal of Paleogeography (Chinese edition), 20(6): 929–940 (in Chinese)
60 NTyler, R J Finley (1988). Reservoir architecture−a critical element in extended conventional recovery of mobile oil in heterogeneous reservoirs. AAPG Bull, 72(2): 255
61 NTyler, R J Finley (1992). Architectural controls on the recovery of hydrocarbons from sandstone reservoirs. In: Miall A D, Tyler N, eds. The Three-Dimensional Facies Architecture of Terrigenous Clastic Sediments and Its Implications for Hydrocarbon Discovery and Recovery. Special Publication of SEPM, 3: 1–8
62 DVentra, M J B Cartigny, J F Bijkerk, S Acikalin (2015). Supercritical-flow structures on a late carboniferous delta front: sedimentologic and paleoclimatic significance. Geology, 43(8): 731–734
https://doi.org/10.1130/G36708.1
63 JWang (2018). Fluvial Fan Architecture, Facies, and Interaction with Lake: Lessons Learned from the Sunnyside Delta Interval of the Green River Formation, Uinta basin, Utah. Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Colorado School of Mines, 1–166
64 X HYu, S L Li , C P Tan, J Xie, B TChen, FYang (2013). The response of deltaic systems to climatic and hydrological changes in Daihai Lake rift basin. Journal of Paleogeography, 2(1): 41–55
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed