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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (1) : 1-10
Global consistency check of AIRS and IASI total CO2 column concentrations using WDCGG ground-based measurements
Anyuan DIAO1,Jiong SHU1(),Ci SONG1,Wei GAO1,2,3
1. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
2. Colorado State University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
3. Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
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This article describes a global consistency check of CO2 satellite retrieval products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) using statistical analysis and data from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). We use the correlation coefficient (r), relative difference (RD), root mean square errors (RMSE), and mean bias error (MBE) as evaluation indicators for this study. Statistical results show that a linear positive correlation between AIRS/IASI and WDCGG data occurs for most regions around the world. Temporal and spatial variations of these statistical quantities reflect obvious differences between satellite-derived and ground-based data based on geographic position, especially for stations near areas of intense human activities in the Northern Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that there appears to be a very weak correlation between AIRS/IASI data and ten ground-based observation stations in Europe, Asia, and North America. These results indicate that retrieval products from the two satellite-based instruments studied should be used with great caution.

Keywords CO2      consistency check      AIRS      IASI      WDCGG     
Corresponding Author(s): Jiong SHU   
Just Accepted Date: 29 November 2016   Online First Date: 20 December 2016    Issue Date: 23 January 2017
 Cite this article:   
Anyuan DIAO,Jiong SHU,Ci SONG, et al. Global consistency check of AIRS and IASI total CO2 column concentrations using WDCGG ground-based measurements[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2017, 11(1): 1-10.
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Anyuan DIAO
Jiong SHU
Parameter Advanced Sounder
Available trace gases in the troposphere CO2, CH4, O3, CO, H2O, SO2 CO2, CH4, O3, CO, H2O, SO2, N2O CO2, CH4, O2, O3, H2O O3, O4, N2O, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, HCHO
Sensor Infrared Sensor (IR) Infrared Sensor (IR) Near Infrared Sensor (NIR) short wave Infrared Sensor (SWIR)
Instrument type Grating Spectrometer Interferometer Cloud and
Aerosol Imager and near infrared/ SWIR radiometer
NIR channel 8 from nadir measurements
Nadir Nadir Nadir, target Limb, nadir
Spectral range/µm 3.74?4.61
Nominal altitude/km 705 819 666 790
Local time 13:30 21:30 13:00±0:15 10:00
Nominal launch date May 2002 October 2006 January 2009 March 2002
Lifetime/year 7 5 5 7
Tab.1  The parameters of advanced sounders: AIRS, IASI, GOSAT, and SCIMACHY
Type Units Type Units
The index of the AMSU FOV none Microwave surface class none
UTC Milliseconds since Jan 1, 1970 msec Microwave surface emissivity none
Retrieval latitude values for each AMSU FOV degrees North Number of MW spectral points AMSU FOV none
Retrieval longitude values for each AMSU FOV degrees East Number of surface emis hinge points per AMSU FOV none
View angle for each AMSU FOV degrees Number of cloud emis hinge points per AMSU FOV none
Satellite height above each AMSU FOV km Number of cloud layers per AMSU FOV none
Column averaged CO2 per AMSU FOV ppm Quality flags for retrieval none
Solar zenith angles for each AMSU FOV degrees Ispare diagnostics array from retrieval none
Ascending_Descending none Rspare diagnostics array from retrieval none
Surface height meters Cloud top pressure mb
Land fraction none Cloud top fractional coverage none
Surface pressure mb Pressure mb
Skin_Temperature Kelvin Effective_Pressure mb
Skin temperature from MIT retrieval Kelvin Effective_Pressure Kelvin
Skin temperature from the first guess Kelvin Temperature from MIT retrieval Kelvin
Temperature from the first guess Kelvin
Tab.2  IASI Level 2 products name-lists and the units (with NetCDFdata format)
Fig.1  Geographical distribution of WDCGG ground-based stations (green dots), selected for consistency check with IASI and AIRS total CO2 datasets.
Fig.2  Correlation coefficient variations for IASI products and WDCGG stations plotted against latitude.
Station name Latitude Longitude Altitude/m Country Correlation coefficient
Southern Great Plains 36.78 97.5 314 USA 0.43319
Point Arena 38.95 123.72 17 USA 0.41907
Begur 41.97 3.23 13 Spain 0.32707
Pic du Midi 42.9372 0.1411 2877 France 0.24789
Plateau Assy 43.25 77.87 2519 France 0.3104
Puy de Dome 45.7719 2.9658 1465 France 0.34257
Schauinsland 47.92 7.92 1205 Germany 0.26769
Tab.3  Low correlation coefficients for ground-based observations and retrieval products from IASI over inland areas
Fig.3  Variations in (a) correlation coefficient, (b) MBE, and (c) RMSE with latitude for the AIRS, IASI, and WDCGG data.
Fig.4  Monthly mean RD between AIRS/IASI and WDCGG for the retrieved CO2 concentrations versus the ground-based observations in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres from August 2008 to December 2010.
Station name Latitude Longitude Altitude/m Country Correlation coefficient
Danum Valley GAW baseline station 4.97 117.83 426 Malaysia 0.627492 0.053252
Pacific Ocean (30°N) 30 ?135 10 N/A 0.655413 0.327731
Tae-ahn Peninsula 36.72 126.12 20 Republic of Korea 0.712489 0.464544
Ulaan Uul 44.45 111.08 914 Mongolia 0.751756 0.281842
Shemya Island 52.72 174.08 40 USA 0.843974 0.291524
Puszcza Borecka/Diabla Gora 54.15 22.07 157 Poland 0.791776 0.400088
Heimaey 63.4 ?20.28 100 Iceland 0.792858 0.418004
Pallas-Sammaltunturi 67.97 24.12 560 Finland 0.800925 0.17097
Teriberka 69.2 35.1 40 Russian Federation 0.761182 0.135397
Zeppelinfjellet (Ny-Alesund) 78.9 11.88 475 Norway 0.734377 0.176992
Tab.4  Abnormal correlation coefficients for ground-based observations and retrieval products from IASI and AIRS for ten stations in Europe, Asia, and North America
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