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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 259-267     DOI: 10.1007/s11707-014-0463-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China
Yan YU1,*(),Jie LIU2,Chunmeng LIU1,Shuang ZONG1,Zhaohua LU1
1. School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
2. Transport Planning and Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Beijing 100028, China
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Abstract

A 180-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic materials on the chemical properties of coastal soil with high salinity and relatively low pH. Four organic materials (three kinds of plant residues: straw, composted straw, and fresh reed; and one kind of poultry manure: chicken manure) were applied at a ratio of 15 g·kg?1 to samples of costal saline soil from the Yellow River Delta of China. The results showed that the soil pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) decreased, whereas soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) and macronutrient concentrations increased, regardless of the type of organic material used. All treatments showed a remarkable increase in soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) during the 180-day incubation. The peak values of SOC in descending order were chicken manure, reed, composted straw, straw, and control soil. At the end of incubation, the highest level of SOC occurred in the straw-amended soil, followed by composted straw, reed, and chicken manure-amended soils. Soil respiration rate and available nitrogen were significantly influenced by the type of material used. Although reed-amended soil had a relatively high SOC and respiration rate, the ESP was reduced the least. Considering the possible risk of heavy metals caused by chicken manure, it is proposed that straw and composted straw are the more efficient materials to use for reclaiming costal saline soil and improving the availability of macronutrients.

Keywords organic material      soil organic carbon      salt-affected soil      ESP      respiration rate     
Corresponding Authors: Yan YU   
Online First Date: 09 September 2014    Issue Date: 30 April 2015
 Cite this article:   
Jie LIU,Chunmeng LIU,Shuang ZONG, et al. Effect of organic materials on the chemical properties of saline soil in the Yellow River Delta of China[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2015, 9(2): 259-267.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-014-0463-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2015/V9/I2/259
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Jie LIU
Chunmeng LIU
Shuang ZONG
Zhaohua LU
Yan YU
Fertilizer description pH Total C/(g·kg?1) Total N/(g·kg?1) SOC/(g·kg?1) C/N SOC/TN Total P /(g·kg?1) C/P Ca/(g·kg?1) Na/(g·kg?1)
Straw Wheat straw as a wasteMaterial from paper mill 6.72 375 6.27 31.56 59.81 5.03 1.71 219.30 12.36 1.66
Composted straw Wheat straw after compost* 6.70 297 7.58 34.04 45.14 4.49 1.68 159.68 12.57 1.68
Reed Stubble with some green leaves taken at the grain ripening stage 6.89 416 11.61 36.18 35.83 3.12 2.77 150.18 4.49 2.01
Chicken manure Commercial manure pellets obtained from egg producer 8.17 420 19.25 53.71 21.82 2.79 5.48 76.64 81.77 1.06
Tab.1  Chemical properties of organic fertilizers used in the incubation experiments
Fig.1  Changes in soil pH and electrical conductivity during 180 days of incubation after the addition of fertilizers.
Na Ca Mg K CEC ESP*
Control 17.73±0.01 1.64±0.05 5.07±0.05 0.26±0.01 51.05±0.46 34.73a
Straw 11.87±0.01 2.91±0.12 7.93±0.37 1.57±0.00 52.99±1.02 22.40c
Composted straw 11.56±0.03 2.94±0.12 8.19±0.20 1.63±0.02 53.28±2.71 21.70c
Reed 15.36±0.01 1.84±0.09 6.27±0.15 1.58±0.01 51.69±1.64 29.72b
Chicken manure 6.66±0.01 8.87±0.12 7.59±0.81 2.83±0.03 63.43±2.81 10.50d
Tab.2  Exchangeable cations (cmol·kg?1soil±standard deviation), cation exchange capacity (CEC), (cmol·kg?1soil±standard deviation), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, %) on day 14
Fig.2  Changes in soluble organic carbon, loss of organic amendments, soil respiration rate, and cumulative respiration during 180 days of incubation after the addition of fertilizers.
Fig.3  Changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus during 180 days of incubation after the addition of fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers properties Exchangeable Ca (day 14) Exchangeable Na(day7) SOC(day 14) CEC(day 3) ESP(day 3) pH (days 1 and 14) Available nitrogen (day 42) Available phosphorus (day 28) Respiration rate (day 7) Cumulative respiration(day14) Amendment C remaining (day 28)
pH 0.86** 0.96*** 0.93*** a 0.97***a 0.79* ?0.90**
Total C
Total N 0.91** 0.91* 0.83** 0.97*** ?0.99***
SOC 0.88** 0.83** 0.99*** 0.97*** 0.87** 0.94*** ?0.91**
TC/TN ?0.91** ?0.77* ?0.93***
SOC/TN 0.91 ** a ?0.76*
TP 0.74* 0.95*** 0.92** 0.96*** ?0.81*
TC/TP ?0.90** ?0.73* ?0.93***
Ca2+ 0.91** 0.71* ?0.76* 0.98*** 0.91**
Na+ 0.71* ?0.82* 0.96*** ?0.97***
Tab.3  Correlation coefficients of organic fertilizers with soil chemical properties on day 14
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