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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 248-258     DOI: 10.1007/s11707-014-0451-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau
Hongxia LIU1,2,Ying HU1,Shihua QI1,Xinli XING1,*(),Yuan ZHANG1,Dan YANG3,Chengkai QU1
1. State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2. Hubei Key Laboratory of Mine Environmental Pollution Control & Remediation, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi 435003, China
3. Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
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Abstract

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29–274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and α-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

Keywords organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)      surface water      spatial distribution      health risk assessment      Tibetan Plateau     
Corresponding Authors: Xinli XING   
Online First Date: 25 September 2014    Issue Date: 30 April 2015
 Cite this article:   
Hongxia LIU,Ying HU,Shihua QI, et al. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2015, 9(2): 248-258.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-014-0451-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2015/V9/I2/248
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Hongxia LIU
Ying HU
Shihua QI
Xinli XING
Yuan ZHANG
Dan YANG
Chengkai QU
Fig.1  Sampling sites along the Aba profile, Sichuan Province, China.
Site No. Area Altitude/m Geographic information Sampling site characteristics
B001 Mianzhu City of Sichuan Basin 588 N:31°18′31.6″ E:104°13′25.4" A vegetable field to the west and a large chemical plant to the south
B002 Maoxian of Aba Prefecture 1,410 N:31°32′12.6″ E:103°40′59.8″ Surrounded by mountains
B003 Maoxian of Aba Prefecture 1,710 N:31°49′47.3″ E:103°39′53.9″ Mountains to the south
B004 Heishui County of Aba Prefecture 1,840 N:31°56′39.9″ E:103°25′02.9″ Near the Heishui River
B005 Heishui County of Aba Prefecture 2,190 N:32°04′08.9″ E:103°07′01.4″ Surrounded by vegetable fields
B006 Heishui County of Aba Prefecture 2,690 N:32°06′05.6″ E:102°48′39.3″ Mountains to the south
B007 Hongyuan County of Aba Prefecture 3,620 N:32°12′37.8″ E:102°29′45.1″ Surrounded by mountains
B008 Hongyuan County of Aba Prefecture 3,578 N:32°26′45.2″ E:102°21′57.5″ Surrounded by breeding farms
B009 Aba County of Aba Prefecture 3,320 N:32°44′26.1″ E:102°03′09.4″ Valley
B010 Aba County of Aba Prefecture 3,490 N:32°51′42.3″ E:101°59′24.2″ Hilly land
B011 Aba County of Aba Prefecture 3,320 N:32°54′07.9″ E:101°43′01.1″ Hilly land
Tab.1  Statistics of water sampling sites in the Aba profile, Sichuan Province, China
Parameters SF/(mg·kg-1·day-1)-1 RfD/(mg·kg-1·day-1) Parameters SF/(mg·kg-1·day-1)-1 RfD/(mg·kg-1·day-1)
α-HCH 6.3 8.0E–03 Aldrin 17 3.0E–05
β-HCH 1.8 Dieldrin 16 5.0E–05
γ-HCH 1.1 3.0E–04 Endrin 3.0E–04
δ-HCH TC 0.35 5.0E–04
p,p’-DDT 0.34 5.0E–04 CC 0.35 5.0E–04
p,p’-DDD 0.24 TN
p,p’-DDE 0.34 CN
o,p’-DDT α-ES 6.0E–03
HEPT 4.5 5.0E–04 β-ES 6.0E–03
HEPX 9.1 1.3E–05 HCB 1.6 8.0E–04
Tab.2  Toxicological parameters of organochlorine pesticides
OCPs Concentration/(ng·L-1) Mean/(ng·L-1) N (detected)
α-HCH 2.79–23.58 9.89 11/11
γ-HCH N.D–32.22 10.37 10/11
δ-HCH 13.71–2.76 5.82 11/11
HCHs 8.79–46.54 26.08 11/11
p,p’-DDT N.D–28.39 5.55 6/11
p,p’-DDD N.D–6.12 0.56 1/11
p,p’-DDE N.D–4.27 1.86 10/11
DDTs N.D–38.66 7.97 10/11
Aldrin 1.63–29.00 6.71 11/11
Dieldrin N.D–0.66 0.06 1/11
Endrin N.D–5.38 0.82 2/11
drins 1.63–29.66 7.59 11/11
HCB 1.88–175.60 49.48 11/11
HEPT N.D–169.84 27.86 7/11
TC N.D–31.14 3.88 7/11
CC N.D–18.46 2.93 8/11
chlordane N.D–49.60 6.81 9/11
TN N.D–22.69 5.15 10/11
OCPs 22.29–274.28 130.94 11/11
Tab.3  Organochlorine pesticides concentrations in water samples from the Aba profile
Location HCB HEPT HCHs DDTs References
Pearl River Delta, China 0.50–14.80 1.08–19.60 Guan et al., 2009
Wuhan reach, Yangtze River N.D–0.69 0.55–28.07 N.D–16.71 Tang et al., 2008
Tonghui River, China N.D–957.80 70.12–992.60 18.79–663.30 Zhang et al., 2004
Lake Chaohu, China 0.06–0.35 N.D–1.09 0.55–6.92 N.D–7.03 Liu et al., 2012
Atoya River, Nicaragua N.D–4.00 N.D–19.00 N.D–73.20 Castilho et al., 2000
Selangor River, Malaysia 132.10–346.10 16.90–90.30 29.30–147.00 Leong et al., 2007
Konya Closed Basin, Turkey N.D–5.00 15.00–65.00 N.D–47.00 Aydin et al., 2013
Lake Volvi, Greece 1.00–10.20 1.30–7.80 2.60–52.30 1.40–142.20 Fytianos et al., 2006
Gomti River, India N.D b–38.36 N.D–29.64 1.63–368.70 N.D–74.95 Malik et al., 2009
River Chenab, Pakistan 0.43–85.00 1.50–140.00 6.70–330.00 0.63–580.00 Eqani et al., 2012
Rivers, the Aba profile 1.88–175.60 N.D–169.84 8.79–46.54 N.D–38.66 This study
Tab.4  Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in surface water from different rivers around the world (ng l-1)
Fig.2  Compositions of organochlorine pesticides in water samples in the Aba profile.
Fig.3  Organochlorine pesticides in water samples along an altitudinal gradient in the Aba profile.
Fig.4  Health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides for individuals through drinking water in the Aba profile.
Locations Carcinogenic risk Non-carcinogenic risk References
HCHs DDTs HCHs DDTs
Huaihe River, China 1.10E–06 a) 2.17E–04 b) h) h) Wang et al., 2009
Hanzhou, China 9.82E–10 c) 4.24E–08 b) 5.61E–06 c) 8.81E–05 b) Sun et al., 2006
Jiulong River, China 7.4E–08 a) 6.2E–07 b) 0.010 a) 0.019 b) Zhang et al., 2002
Lake Chaohu, China 1.45E–08 a) 3.96E–08 b) 3.22E–05 d) 1.63E–05 e) He et al., 2012
Rivers, Greece h) h) 1.2 d) 974 f) Vryzas et al., 2009
Ebro River, Spain 1.3E–06 c) 1.26E–07 b) 1.9E–05 c) 5.9E–06 b) Ferré-Huguet et al., 2009
Rivers, the Aba profile 2.36E–06(for adult)g)5.05E–06(for child)g) 8.48E–08(for adult)b)1.82E–07(for child)b) 0.001(for adult)g)0.002(for child)g) 0.0004(for adult)e)0.0008(for child)e) This study
Tab.5  Risk distribution of organochlorine pesticides for individuals through drinking water in different areas
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