Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2015, Vol. 9 Issue (1) : 105-113     DOI: 10.1007/s11707-014-0447-6
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China’s steel industry
Chengkang GAO1,*(),Dan WANG2,Baohua ZHAO3,Shan CHEN1,Wei QIN1
1. SEP Key Laboratory on Eco-industry, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
2. Department of Geography, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
3. Appraisal Center for Environment and Engineering, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100012, China
Download: PDF(260 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China’s steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China’s steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%–45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

Keywords CO2 emission      whole-process      scenario analysis      Chinese steel industry      ecological industry     
Corresponding Authors: Chengkang GAO   
Online First Date: 12 June 2014    Issue Date: 04 February 2015
 Cite this article:   
Chengkang GAO,Dan WANG,Baohua ZHAO, et al. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China’s steel industry[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2015, 9(1): 105-113.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-014-0447-6
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2015/V9/I1/105
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Chengkang GAO
Dan WANG
Baohua ZHAO
Shan CHEN
Wei QIN
Fig.1  Model of whole-process analysis.
Fig.2  Technical route and key points for CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry.
Fig.3  Model of scenario analyses.
Technologies 2005 2010 2015 2020
CO2 reduction effect/(kg·(t-s)-1) Usagerate/% CO2 reduction effect/(kg·(t-s)-1) Usagerate/% CO2 reduction effect/(kg·(t-s)-1) Usagerate/% CO2 reduction effect/(kg·(t-s)-1) Usagerate/%
CDQ 6.678 15.9 16.8 40.0 29.408 70.0 37.808 90.0
CMC 0 0 1.92 10 3.84 20.0 7.68 40.0
TRT 22.5 75.0 24 80.0 26.78 90.0 29.63 100
Converter gas recovery 24.75 37.5 29.7 45.0 53.66 66.7 76.73 90.0
Regenerative re-heating furnace 5 10.0 12.5 25.0 20 40.0 30 60.0
Hot transfer and hot charging rolling 10.8 30.0 16.2 45.0 21.6 60.0 28.8 80.0
Sinter residual-heat recovery 1.1 10 2.2 20 3.3 30 5.5 50
Low-pressure saturated steam generation 0.42 3 1.4 10 2.1 15 2.8 20
Dispatch center of energy management 4.03 6.5 9.3 15 18.6 30 37.2 60
Blast furnace slag cement 277.5 75 221.6 80 249.3 90 277 100
Slag cement 6.936 8 13.005 15 17.336 20 21.676 25
Arc-furnace steel 163.8 11.7 182 13 210 15 280 20
Tab.1  CO2 reduction forecasts and usage of CO2 emissions reduction technologies in the steel industry
Year Coking/(kg·t-1) Sintering/(kg·t-1) Iron-making/(kg·t-1) Converting/(kg·t-1) Rolling/(kg·t-1) CO2 emission/(t·(t-s)-1) Carbon-fixationper ton steel/(t·(t-s)-1) Virtual CO2 emissions/(t·(t-s)-1)
2005 366.47 162.05 1139.30 89.75 221.88 1.979 0.168 1.812
2020 279.91 136.99 1023.75 8.08 143.75 1.237 0.039 1.198
Tab.2  CO2 emissions per product in different process of steel enterprises
Scenario Year Index
GDP /(1012$) Crude steel production /(106 t) CO2 emissions per ton steel/(t·(t-s)-1) CO2 emission per unit gross value of steel industry output/(t·10-3 $) Decrease rate compared to 2005/%
Scenario I 2005 2.26 353.2 1.812 7.198
2010 5.36 626.7 1.513 5.358 25.56
2015 7.52 1009.31? 1.384 5.305 26.30
2020 9.15 1415.61? 1.198 4.751 33.99
Scenario II 2005 2.26 353.2 1.812 7.197
2010 5.36 626.7 1.513 5.358 25.56
2015 7.52 1206.66? 1.384 6.342 11.89
2020 9.15 2033.29? 1.198 6.824 ?5.19
Scenario III 2005 2.26 226.02 1.812 4.606
2010 5.36 442.17 1.513 3.78? 17.92
2015 7.52 712.12 1.384 3.743 18.74
2020 9.15 998.78 1.198 3.352 27.22
Scenario IV 2005 2.26 269.29 1.812 5.488
2010 5.36 625.65 1.513 5.349 ?2.53
2015 7.52 1204.64? 1.384 6.331 -15.37???
2020 9.15 1445.18? 1.198 4.85? 11.62
Tab.3  CO2 emissions forecast of the Chinese steel industry
Fig.4  CO2 total emissions of the Chinese steel industry from 2010 to 2020.
Fig.5  The decrease rate for CO2 emissions per unit GDP of the steel industry in China from 2010 to 2020.
1 Agnolucci P, Ekins P, Iacopini G, Anderson K, Bows A, Mander S, Shackley S (2009). Different scenarios for achieving radical reduction in carbon emissions: a decomposition analysis. Ecol Econ, 68(6): 1652–1666
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.09.005
2 Ang J B (2009). CO2 emissions, research and technology transfer in China. Ecol Econ, 68(10): 2658–2665
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.05.002
3 Chen G Q, Zhang B (2010). Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: inventory and input-output analysis. Energy Policy, 38(10): 6180–6193
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.06.004
4 Chen Z M, Chen G Q (2011). Embodied carbon dioxide emission at supra-national scale: a coalition analysis for G7, BRIC, and the rest of the world. Energy Policy, 39(5): 2899–2909
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.068
5 China Steel Industry Association Code (2010). Steel Industry Yearbook in China (2010). Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 106–183 (in Chinese)
6 Fan Y, Liang Q M, Wei Y M, Okada N (2007). A model for China’s energy requirements and CO2 emissions analysis. Environ Model Softw, 22(3): 378–393
doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.12.007
7 Feng Y Y, Chen S Q, Zhang L X (2013). System dynamics modeling for urban energy consumption and CO2 emissions: a case study of Beijing, China. Ecol Modell, 252: 44–52
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.09.008
8 Gao C K, Wang D, Dong H, Cai J J, Zhu W G, Du T (2011). Optimization and evaluation of steel industry’s water-use system. J Clean Prod, 19(1): 64–69
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.08.013
9 Gielen D (2003). CO2 removal in the iron and steel industry. Energy Convers Manage, 44(7): 1027–1037
doi: 10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00111-5
10 Gielen D, Moriguchi Y, Yagita H (2002). CO2 emission reduction for Japanese petrochemicals. J Clean Prod, 10(6): 589–604
doi: 10.1016/S0959-6526(01)00056-7
11 Hasanbeigi A, Menke C, Price L (2010). The CO2 abatement cost curve for the Thailand cement industry. J Clean Prod, 18(15): 1509–1518
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.06.005
12 Hasanbeigi A, Morrow W, Sathaye J, Masanet E, Xu T (2013). A bottom-up model to estimate the energy efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction potentials in the Chinese iron and steel industry. Energy, 50: 315–325
doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2012.10.062
13 Hu C Q, Chen L Y, Zhang C X, Qi Y H, Yin R Y (2006). Emission mitigation of CO2 in steel industry: current status and future scenarios. J Iron Steel Res Int, 13(6): 38–42, 52
doi: 10.1016/S1006-706X(06)60107-6
14 ?pek Tun? G, Türüt-A??k S, Akbostanc? E (2007). CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: an input–output approach for the Turkish economy. Energy Policy, 35(2): 855–868
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.02.012
15 Jürgen A P (2010). Present status and future aspects of environmental protection in the European and German steel industry. “International symposium on global environment and steel industry proceedings”. Beijing: Chinese Society for Metals, 15–37
16 Kim Y, Worrell E (2002). International comparison of CO2 emission trends in the iron and steel industry. Energy Policy, 30(10): 827–838
doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(01)00130-6
17 Li J S, Alsaed A, Hayat T, Chen G Q (2014). Energy and carbon emission review for Macao’s gaming industry. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 29: 744–753
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.001
18 Li Q Q, Guo R, Li F T, Xia B B (2012). Integrated inventory-based carbon accounting for energy-induced emissions in Chongming eco-island of Shanghai, China. Energy Policy, 49: 173–181
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.027
19 Lu Z W (2006). The following-observation method for substance flow analysis. China Engineering Science, 1(8): 18–25 (in Chinese)
20 Lu Z W, Xie A G, Zhou D G (1996). More on the directions and measures of energy conservation of Chinese steel industry. Iron and Steel, 31(2): 54–58 (in Chinese)
21 Moya J A, Pardo N, Mercier A (2011). The potential for improvements in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the EU27 cement industry and the relationship with the capital budgeting decision criteria. J Clean Prod, 19(11): 1207–1215
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.03.003
22 National Bureau of Statistics (2012). 2012 Statistical Yearbook in China. Beijing: China Statistics (in Chinese)
23 Oda J, Akimoto K, Sano F, Tomoda T (2007). Diffusion of energy efficient technologies and CO2 emission reductions in iron and steel sector. Energy Econ, 29(4): 868–888
doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2007.01.003
24 Ozawa L, Sheinvaum C, Martin N, Worrell E, Price L (2002). Energy use and CO2 emissions in Mexico’s iron and steel industry. Energy, 27(3): 225–239
doi: 10.1016/S0360-5442(01)00082-2
25 Polenske K R, McMichael F C (2002). A Chinese cokemaking process-flow model for energy and environmental analyses. Energy Policy, 30(10): 865–883
doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(01)00147-1
26 Price L, Sinton J, Worrell E, Phylipsen D, Xiulian H, Ji L (2002). Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in China. Energy, 27(5): 429–446
doi: 10.1016/S0360-5442(01)00095-0
27 Sha G Y, Liu Y H, Yin R Y, Zhang C X (2008). The current status and the countemeasures of energy saving and CO2 reduction in steel industry. Energy for Metallurgical Industry, 27(1): 3–6
28 Song M L, Wang S H, Yu H Y, Yang L, Wu J (2011). To reduce energy consumption and to maintain rapid economic growth: analysis of the condition in China based expended IPAT model. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 15(9): 5129–5134
doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.043
29 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (1995). Electricity Law of the People’s Republic of China, 1995.12
30 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (1996). Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Coal Industry, 1996.8
31 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (1997). Law of the People’s Republic of China on Conserving Energy, 1997
32 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2002). Law of the People’s Republic of China on Promoting Clean Production, 2002.6
33 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2005). Renewable Energy Law of the People’s Republic of China, 2005.6
34 Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2008). Circular Economy Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China, 2008
35 State Council Office (2009). Targets of China’s controling greenhouse gas emissions—Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting of the deployment to address climate change. People’s Daily (in Chinese)
36 Sun J W (1998). Accounting for energy use in China, 1980–94. Energy, 23(10): 835–849
doi: 10.1016/S0360-5442(98)00031-0
37 Sun W Q, Cai J J, Mao H J, Guan D J (2011). Change in carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in China’s iron and steel industry. J Iron Steel Res Int, 18(6): 31–36
doi: 10.1016/S1006-706X(11)60074-5
38 The U N (United Nations) Climate Change conference (2009). COP15, in Copenhagen, http://baike.baidu.com/view/ 3036374.htm (in Chinese)
39 Wang K, Wang C, Lu X D, Chen J N (2007). Scenario analysis on CO2 emissions reduction potential in China’s iron and steel industry. Energy Policy, 35(4): 2320–2335
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2006.08.007
40 Wen Z G, Meng F X, Chen M (2014). Estimates of the potential for energy conservation and CO2 emissions mitigation based on Asian-Pacific integrated model (AIM): the case of the iron and steel industry in China. J Clean Prod, 65: 120–130
41 Worrell E, Price L, Martin N (2001). Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the US iron and steel sector. Energy, 26(5): 513–536
doi: 10.1016/S0360-5442(01)00017-2
42 Worrell E, Price L, Martin N, Farla J, Schaeffer R (1997). Energy intensity in the iron and steel industry: a comparsion of physical and economic indicators. Energy Policy, 25(7–9): 727–744
doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(97)00064-5
43 Wu F, Fan L W, Zhou P, Zhou D Q (2012). Industrial energy efficiency with CO2 emissions in China: a nonparametric analysis. Energy Policy, 49: 164–172
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.035
44 Xia X H, Huang G T, Chen G Q, Zhang B, Chen Z M, Yang Q (2011). Energy security, efficiency and carbon emission of Chinese industry. Energy Policy, 39(6): 3520–3528
doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.051
45 Yang J X, Liu B J (2002). Life cycle inventory analysis of Chinese steel. Environ Sci, 22(4): 519–522 (in Chinese)
46 Yang Q, Chen G Q (2013). Greenhouse gas emissions of corn-ethanol production in China. Ecol Modell, 252: 176–184
doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.07.011
47 Zhang B, Wang Z H, Yin J H, Su L X (2012a). CO2 emission reduction within Chinese iron & steel industry: practices, determinants and performance. J Clean Prod, 33: 167–178
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.012
48 Zhang C X (2009). Effecting on carbon dioxide emission from steel enterprise and from process structure. Report on Steel Enterprise Conference, 2009.9
49 Zhang C, Chen J N, Wen Z G (2012b). Assessment of policy alternatives and key technologies for energy conservation and water pollution reduction in China’s synthetic ammonia industry. J Clean Prod, 25: 96–105
doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.11.056
50 Zhang L X, Feng Y Y, Chen B (2011a). Alternative scenarios for the development of a low-carbon city: a case study of Beijing, China. Energies, 4(12): 2295–2310
doi: 10.3390/en4122295
51 Zhang L X, Yang Z F, Liang J, Cai Y P (2011b). Spatial variation and distribution of urban energy consumptions from cities in China. Energies, 4(1): 26–38
doi: 10.3390/en4010026
52 Zhao J B (2012). Research on the legal system of low-carbon economy. Dissertation for Ph.D degree. Chongqing: Chongqing University, 145–160
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Jiashuo LI,Ran LUO,Qing YANG,Haiping YANG. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2016, 10(4): 717-730.
[2] Na DUAN,Cong LIN,Pingzhi WANG,Jing MENG,Hui CHEN,Xue LI. Ecological analysis of a typical farm-scale biogas plant in China[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2014, 8(3): 375-384.
[3] Cong DONG, Guohe HUANG, Qian TAN, Yanpeng CAI. Coupled planning of water resources and agricultural land-use based on an inexact-stochastic programming model[J]. Front Earth Sci, 2014, 8(1): 70-80.
[4] Xianglian LI, Qiong GAO, Tingwu LEI, Xiusheng YANG. Application of an integrative hydro-ecological model to study water resources management in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin[J]. Front Earth Sci, 2011, 5(1): 45-55.
[5] Shouke WEI, Albrecht GNAUCK, Alin LEI. Simulation analysis of domestic water demand and its future uncertainty in water scarce areas[J]. Front Earth Sci Chin, 2009, 3(3): 349-360.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed