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Frontiers of Engineering Management

Front. Eng    2019, Vol. 6 Issue (3) : 336-350
The psychology of organizational and social sustainability
Wei-Tau LEE1, Hao ZHANG2(), Kenneth H. FUNK II1
1. School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2. School of Integrated Sciences, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA
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This paper presents 12 dimensions of work with the aim of providing further understanding of the relationship between work and the psychological well-being of workers. Previous research has indicated that these dimensions are significant in establishing such a relationship, which is essential to creating good work. These dimensions are also influential in their effect on the psychological state of workers and are translated specifically into actionable items in the workplace. A hypothetical system model is developed to relate these dimensions to one another, to workers, and to organizations. This set of dimensions also serves as a basis for further development of work design and evaluation tools.

Keywords work design      work dimensions      psychological factors      good work     
Corresponding Authors: Hao ZHANG   
Just Accepted Date: 10 April 2019   Online First Date: 15 May 2019    Issue Date: 04 September 2019
 Cite this article:   
Wei-Tau LEE,Hao ZHANG,Kenneth H. FUNK II. The psychology of organizational and social sustainability[J]. Front. Eng, 2019, 6(3): 336-350.
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Wei-Tau LEE
Kenneth H. FUNK II
Fig.1  Summary of Demand-Control model based on Karasek and Theorell (1990)
Dimension Definition Main Sources of Inspiration
Compensation All material gains workers can obtain by performing their assigned work Maslow (1943;1954), Chan and Ngai (2009)
Safety Degree to which workers are protected from physical and psychological harm while performing their work and within the premises of the workplace Maslow (1943;1954)
Social Interaction Degree to which workers interact with each other during work Karasek and Theorell (1990), Deci and Ryan (2004), Ryan and Deci (2000), Hackman and Oldham (1980), Maslach and Goldberg (1998)
Variety Variety of tasks workers perform in the workplace Hackman and Oldham (1980)
Aesthetics Exposure to beauty and creativity while performing work, possibly from the workplace, the work environment, or the workplace itself Maslow (1943, 1954)
Feedback Amount and quality of knowledge workers receive regarding their work performance Hackman and Oldham (1980)
Accomplishment and Status Feeling of satisfaction toward one’s attainments at work and one’s place within an organization Maslow (1943, 1954), Keegan and Green (2005)
Demand Physical and psychological efforts required from workers to accomplish the task Karasek and Theorell (1990), Maslach and Goldberg (1998)
Autonomy Degree of control workers can exert over their work in terms of freely applying their knowledge, judgment, skills, and creativity Hackman and Oldham (1980), Karasek and Theorell (1990), Maslach and Goldberg (1998), Maiscampo and Baumeister (2008)
Value Importance of one’s role and its impact within and beyond an organization Maslow (1954), Hackmen and Oldham (1980), Senge (1990)
Technical Growth Opportunities available to workers to obtain work-related skills and knowledge that can be applied to their work and career Maslow (1954), Hackman and Oldham (1980), Senge (1990), Deci and Ryan (2004)
Personal Growth Degree to which work helps its workers further themselves according to their personal beliefs and values Maslow (1954), Hofstede and Hofstede (2005), Schumacher (1979)
Tab.1  12 Dimensions of Good Work
Fig.2  Feedback relationships among psychological factors, work factors, and work dimensions
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