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Frontiers of Engineering Management    2019, Vol. 6 Issue (3) : 433-452     https://doi.org/10.1007/s42524-019-0052-1
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of sustainability metrics for the construction and operation of airport and roadway infrastructure
Sarah M. L. HUBBARD1(), Bryan HUBBARD2()
1. School of Aviation and Transportation Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2. School of Building Construction Management Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Abstract

Sustainability has become increasingly important, however, relatively little attention has focused on metrics for the construction and operation of airport and roadway infrastructure. Most attention has focused on buildings, with high profile BREEAM and LEED projects taking center stage. Sustainability is also important in airport and roadway infrastructure projects, which have significant public impact but have a much lower profile than vertical construction when it comes to sustainability. Sustainable infrastructure is important in China and India where new infrastructure is under construction to meet growing and developing economies, and in the US, where infrastructure is in substandard condition and requires reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of sustainability rating systems for airport and roadway infrastructure, including both construction and operation. Specific projects that highlight both proven and innovative sustainable practices are included to illustrate the application of these concepts. Finally, the relationship between sustainable transportation infrastructure and resilient transportation infrastructure is addressed since resiliency is of growing interest and there is overlap between these concepts.

Keywords sustainable construction      infrastructure      airport      roadway      resiliency      sustainability     
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Sarah M. L. HUBBARD
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引用本文:   
Sarah M. L. HUBBARD,Bryan HUBBARD. A review of sustainability metrics for the construction and operation of airport and roadway infrastructure[J]. Front. Eng, 2019, 6(3): 433-452.
网址:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/10.1007/s42524-019-0052-1     OR     http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/Y2019/V6/I3/433
Fig.1  Estimated annual transportation infrastructure needs in the US ($B) (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017)
Fig.2  Sustainability concepts. (a) Triple bottom line (Adams, 2006); (b) Strong sustainability (Maureen Hart. Sustainable Measures as referensed by USDA, 2011); (c) Adaptation of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (2006).
Facility Certification Project Notable Components
Waddington Runway Refurbishment CEEQUAL Excellent Refurbishment of runway and lighting • Whole Team Award (75.5%) on this secure RAF defense site
• First runway project to incorporate major recycling in UK
• Pavement refurbishment ranged from overlay (1.2 m) to full reconstruction on runway, thresholds and taxiways
• Project lighting included ground lighting and taxiway lighting
Trafikplats Jung, Kvänum, Sweden CEEQUAL Very Good Replacement of intersection with grade-separated interchange (65.48 million SEK) • Construction Only Award, award was not a contract requirement
• Reduced need for lime-cement injections as evidenced by the results of geotechnical survey expedited project schedule (by 10 months) and reduced environmental impact (21% reduction)
• Carbon footprint was 21% below original design (saving 487 tons CO2) due to fewer lime-cement injections and use of grass to prevent erosion rather than gravel
• No waste sent to landfill; surplus clay was used to protect groundwater and excavated material was used for community sled run.
M1 Widening CEEQUALVery Good Roadway widening and improvements on 10-mile section of M1 (£250m) • Whole Team Award on this project to improve safety and reduce congestion on a historic and strategic connection in London.
• 35-month project resulted in four lanes with continuous shoulder
• Included replacement and widening of 18 bridges, utility diversions and overhead power cables
• Noise impacts were reduced through noise barriers and low noise pavement surface
• Recycled aggregate was used for pavement (92%) and drainage (40%)
• Stormwater plan includes 20% increase in storage capacity (ponds) to accommodate future climate change
• Project photo study documented changes and extensive archeological investigation was conducted prior to project
Tab.1  Sample projects certified through BREEAM and CEEQUAL
Facility Certification Project Notable Components
San Diego Airporta) LEED Platinum, 2014 460,000 sf expansion of terminal, 1.3 M sf apron and taxiway • Energy efficient high performance glazed glass and natural lighting, efficient baggage management
• Materials selection
• Construction waste reduction (>90% reduced waste)
• Energy use monitoring for future operation
Indianapolis International Airportb) LEED Certified, 2012 1.2 M sf campus including terminal, concourses, transportation center, parking garage • Natural lighting, energy efficient HVAC, building controls and water fixtures
• Recycling for construction material and terminal operations
• Low impact construction including recycled and regional construction materials
• Reduction in aircraft taxi times
Santa Barbarac) LEED Gold, 2013 72,000 sf included aircraft parking ramp, parking, and roadway and relocation and rehabilitation of terminal • Recycled concrete and asphalt for new terminal road and parking lot
• High efficiency water fixtures (30% reduction)
• Bike racks and lockers for alternative transportation
• Renewable energy photovoltaic system
• Recycled materials for wood
LAX Midfield Satellite Concourse (MSC) d) Designed for LEED Sliver and LAGBC Tier 1 $1.6B five level 750,000 sf concourse • Energy and water conservation
• Recycled material use including steel and wood from former Quantas Hangar
• Heat island reduction through cool roofs and pavements
• Natural daylight in public spaces
Beijing Daxing Intl Airporte) LEED Platinum Total planned land area of up to 50 sq km • First project in the world to use LEED for Cities: Planning and Design
• Developer of the Beijing New Aerotropolis will use an indicator system to track performance of airport area development
Delhi Indira Gandhi Terminal 3f) LEED Gold including Arc >3,000,000 sf terminal • Arc provides daily metrics (energy, water, waste, transportation and passenger experience) for the airport and vendors are based on sensor data and analytics
Tab.2  Sample projects certified through LEED
Facility Certification Project Notable Components
Detroit Metropolitan Airport Envision Silver Runway 4L/22R and associated taxiway reconstruction • 6.5 miles of runway (10,000 ft long and 150 ft wide) and taxiway
• Low-energy LED lighting and signage
• Stormwater management, including stormwater re-use for dust control (10M+ gallons to date)
• Re-use of excavated materials on site
• Holistic decision-making and resilient design
• Improved long-term durability of runway will reduce maintenance needs and costs and increase operational efficiency
T.F. Green Airport (PVD) in Providence, RI Envision Gold Runway 5 extension to enhance safety and accommodate more aircraft • Sustainability was identified as a main objective during the design phase
• Quality of life benefits include job creation and regional accessibility, as well as partnerships with local schools
• A taxiway connector and hold bay were eliminated from the design to reduce both capital and maintenance costs (including lighting, signage, and pavement costs as well as reduced stormwater runoff)
I-4 in central Florida Envision Platinum 21-mile corridor reconstruction (design and construction cost $2.32B) • Public-private partnership (P3) with 40-year P3 concession agreement
• Relocated protected wildlife
• Used efficient machinery
• Controlled stormwater runoff and prevents construction pollutants from contaminating soils, surface water and groundwater
• Four underground storage tanks and petroleum impacted soils (145 tons) removed from project site
• Removed 99% of concrete and steel from roads and bridges
• Integrated rail projects, bike trails and pedestrian projects
• Project will ease congestion and increase connectivity among communities
• Variable toll express lanes
San Diego Intl Airport Parking Plaza Envision Gold Three level parking garage with 3,000 parking spaces • 11 acres and 1 M sq ft
• Includes reservation, assist to locate vacant parking space and streamlined payment
• Increased safety with reduces visual obstructions
• Efficient access and egress for special events
• Utilizes advanced technologies such as automated vehicle identification and payment via cell phone
• Improved public spaces that incorporate public art
• Solar panels provide renewable energy
Tab.3  Sample projects certified through Envision
Organization Years Region
Airport Authority Hong Kong
Beijing Capital Intl Airport
Hong Kong (China) Airport Services
Airports of Thailand
Incheon Airport
Korea Airports Corporation
Kaohsiung Intl Airport
Malaysia Airports
Mumbai Intl Airport
Sheremetyevo Intl Airport
Tallinn Airport
2014, 2015, 2016
2017
2014, 2015, 2017
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
2014, 2015, 2016
2014
2016
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
2014, 2016, 2018
2018
2018
Asia
Athens Intl Airport
Brussels Airport
Dortmund Airport
Heathrow Airport
Krakow
Malta Intl Airport
Manchester Airports Group
Munich Airport
Sheremetyevo Intl Airport
Tallinn Airport
Vienna International Airport
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
2018
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018
2018
2016, 2017
2014, 2015, 2016
2014, 2015, 2016
2017
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
2015
Europe
Auckland Intl Airport
Brisbane Airport Corporation
Christchurch Intl Airport
Sydney Airport
2015, 2016, 2017
2016
2017
2015, 2016
Oceania
Austin-Bergstrom Intl Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth Intl Airport
Edmonton Intl Airport
Indianapolis Airport Authority
Metropolitan Airports Commission (MSP)
San Diego Intl Airport
2014, 2015, 2017, 2018
2014, 2016
2015, 2016, 2017, 2018
2014
2016
2014
Northern America
Lima Airport Partners 2015. 2016, 2017 Latin America & Caribbean
Tab.4  Organizations in aviation sector (keyword airport) in GRI sustainability database
Facility Certification Notable Activities
Sea-Tac a) Optimization • Use of carbon free hydro-electric power eliminates carbon emissions for electricity
• Carbon emissions due to natural gas used to power buses, boilers and provide hot water
• Use of biofuels being studied in conjunction with Alaska Airlines and Boeing
• Clean taxi program assures use of alternative fuels or high efficiency vehicles
• One of the fastest growing airports in the US
London-Heathrowb) Optimization • Replaced 70,000 airport lights with LED
• Reduction of 540,000 tonnes of carbon monoxide in 16 months
• The busiest airport in Europe and the busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic
• Other sustainability initiatives include composting food waste and replacement of Terminal 1 restroom and pipe system to reduce water use
Indianapolis Airport c) Reduction • In 2016, IND achieved the Mapping level; in 2017, IND received the Reduction Accreditation.
Chengdu Shuangliu Intl Airportd) Mapping • In 2019, China’s Chengdu Shuangliu Intl Airport (CTU) and Zhengzhou Xinzheng Intl Airport (CGO) became two of the 54 airports accredited through ACI in Asia.
Tab.5  Sample airports using ACI Airport Carbon Accreditation Program
Region Certification Level Number of Airports Number of Countries Passenger Traffic
(in region)
Example Airport
Asia Pacific
54 total
Mapping
Reduction
Optimization
Neutrality
12
17
19
6
4
9
10
3
5.3%
9%
18.3%
4.8%
Chengdu Shuangliu
Abu Dhabi
Hong Kong (China)
Indira Gandhi (Delhi)
Europe
139
Mapping
Reduction
Optimization
Neutrality
42
33
24
40
12
14
11
13
4.0%
14.3%
21.3%
24.2%
Malta
Tel Aviv Ben Gurion
Frankfurt
London Gatwick
Africa
12 total
Mapping
Reduction
Optimization
Neutrality
7
4
0
1
4
3
1
14%
17.2%
1.1%
Port Elizabeth
Cape Town
Felix Houphouet-Boigny Abidjan
North America
39 total
Mapping
Reduction
Optimization
Neutrality
11
16
11
1
2
2
2
1
2.5%
13.2%
21.9%
3.6%
Winnipeg Richardson
Phoenix Sky Harbor, IND
Toronto Pearson, LAX
Dallas Fort Worth
Latin America & Caribbean
20 total
Mapping
Reduction
Optimization
Neutrality
14
4
1
1
8
4
1
1
14.6%
1.9%
0.8%
0.1%
San Jose Juan Santamaria
Puerto Vallarta
Quito
Galapagos Ecological
Tab.6  Worldwide use of ACI Airport Carbon Accreditation Program
Sustainable Sites Materials and Resources Construction Practices
Construction activity pollution prevention
Adopt CDA Best Management Practices (BMP)
Brownfield redevelopment
Stormwater Design
Building and infrastructure reuse
Construction waste management
Balanced earthwork
Aggregate and material reuse
Recycled content
Local/regional content
Equipment salvage and reuse
Clean fuel and low-emission construction vehicles
Construction equipment maintenance
Construction activity pollution prevention
Construction waste management
Construction material conveying
Construction noise
Sustainable temporary construction materials
Tab.7  Selected Construction Components in CDA Sustainable Airport Manual
Fig.3  Excerpt from LAWA Sustainable Airport Checklist (LAWA, 2010)
Facility Status Project Notable Components
183 South Bergstrom Expressway, Austin TXa) Pilot Project Widen 8 miles of US 183, adding toll lanes, improving existing lanes, and adding bike and pedestrian paths, sidewalks and cross-street connections • Community tree planning near project corridor
• Reduced construction noise, light and emissions
• Restoration of historic Montopolis Bridge will serve bikes and pedestrians
• New trailhead and park at Colorado River will be constructed
• Protect wildlife and their habitats
• Reduce noise impacts and minimize air quality impacts (including emissions and dust control)
Bagby Street ReconstructionHouston TXb) Greenroads Silver Certified, 2013 0.62 mi of reconstruction on a collector for $9.6M • Cool pavement: reduce impact on air temperature due to pavement reflectance and minimize stormwater runoff temperatures by using porous pavement
• Regional and recycled materials
Tab.8  Sample Greenroads certified and registered projects
Method Traditional Application or Developer Scope Awards and Notable Components
BREEAM Buildings in Europe Certification for buildings, master planning and infrastructure. • Pass, Good, Very Good, Excellent and Outstanding
CEEQUAL Infrastructure in Europe Certification for civil engineering, infrastructure, landscaping and public projects.
Topic areas: project management, land use, landscape, ecology and biodiversity, historic environment, water resources, energy and carbon, material use, waste management, transport, neighbors, community relations
• Whole Team (formerly whole project), Interim Client & Design, Client & Design, Design (if client and contractor do not wish to participate), Design & Construction, Construction
• Being integrated with BREEAM in future
LEED Buildings in the United States Certification for design and construction, interior design, operations and maintenance, homes and neighborhood development • Certified, Silver, Gold, Platinum
Envision Horizontal infrastructure Certification for design, construction and operation of all civil infrastructure including roads, bridges, airports, railways, dams, pipelines, and parks.
Design categories include: quality of life, leadership, resource allocation, natural world, climate and risk
• Improved, Enhanced, Superior, Conserving, and Restorative
• Program may also be used without formal certification
GRI Organizational reporting Guidelines for organization to self-report sustainability efforts.
Special supplements for construction, real estate, and airport operators
• Previously referred to as G4 Guidelines
• Organizations develop their own sustainability goals and can use GRI to quantify achievements
ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems Supports internal information and communication with public, customers and clients
Provides framework to increase resource efficiency, reduce waste and control costs
• Framework for voluntary regulation rather than certification
• Tools support environmental control processes, monitoring, comparison of objectives and results and continuous improvement
Airport Carbon Accreditation Developed by Airport Council International Mechanism to measure airport carbon footprint • Mapping, Reduction, Optimization, and Neutrality
• Accreditation is based on practices and independent verification of CO measurements
CDA Sustainable Airport Manual Developed for O’Hare and Midway Includes administrative procedures, planning, design and construction, operations and maintenance and concessions and tenants • Supports self-assessment based on checklists and points
• Best management practices are identified
LAWA Sustainable Design Developed for Los Angeles World Airports Includes economic, environmental and social framework for sustainability and provides point system for planning, design and construction • Sustainable, Business Class and First Class
Supports self-assessment based on checklists, design guidelines, and performance standards
Tab.9  Comparison of sustainability metrics
Method Traditional Application or Developer Scope Awards and Notable Components
INVEST Developed by FHWA Modules for system planning at state, regional and project level
Addresses project development, operations and maintenance
• Provides scorecard that can be used to advance better practices, foster sustainability, educate stakeholders, and promote communication
• Considers 33 criteria that reflect planning, design and construction and can be customized for the project
Greenroads Roadway design and construction in US Independent certification for roadway design and construction
Rating system reflects water, environment, access, community impact, construction practices and materials
• Projects can be designated as a pilot project or Certified project based on ratings Bronze, Silver, Gold and Evergreen
GreenLITES Developed by New York State DOT Self-certification framework can accommodate local priorities and reflects the following categories: sustainable sites, water, materials and resources, energy and atmosphere and innovation (which can encompass construction) • Self-certification at levels Certified, Silver, Gold and Evergreen
I-LAST Developed by Illinois DOT Tool to evaluate the use of sustainable practices and the impact of these projects on the livability, sustainability and the environment • Scorecard for self-certification that addresses planning, design, environment, water, transportation, lighting materials and innovation.
Tab.10  Comparison of sustainability metrics (continued)
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