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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (4) : 672-683
Encapsulation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol with tetraethyl orthosilicate for CO2 capture
Sidra Rama1, Yan Zhang1, Fideline Tchuenbou-Magaia2, Yulong Ding1, Yongliang Li1()
1. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B12 2TT, UK
2. School of Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK
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Carbon capture is widely recognised as an essential strategy to meet global goals for climate protection. Although various CO2 capture technologies including absorption, adsorption and membrane exist, they are not yet mature for post-combustion power plants mainly due to high energy penalty. Hence researchers are concentrating on developing non-aqueous solvents like ionic liquids, CO2-binding organic liquids, nanoparticle hybrid materials and microencapsulated sorbents to minimize the energy consumption for carbon capture. This research aims to develop a novel and efficient approach by encapsulating sorbents to capture CO2 in a cold environment. The conventional emulsion technique was selected for the microcapsule formulation by using 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) as the core sorbent and silicon dioxide as the shell. This paper reports the findings on the formulated microcapsules including key formulation parameters, microstructure, size distribution and thermal cycling stability. Furthermore, the effects of microcapsule quality and absorption temperature on the CO2 loading capacity of the microcapsules were investigated using a self-developed pressure decay method. The preliminary results have shown that the AMP microcapsules are promising to replace conventional sorbents.

Keywords carbon capture      microencapsulated sorbents      emulsion technique      low temperature adsorption and absorption     
Corresponding Author(s): Yongliang Li   
Just Accepted Date: 15 October 2019   Online First Date: 26 November 2019    Issue Date: 04 December 2019
 Cite this article:   
Sidra Rama,Yan Zhang,Fideline Tchuenbou-Magaia, et al. Encapsulation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol with tetraethyl orthosilicate for CO2 capture[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(4): 672-683.
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Sidra Rama
Yan Zhang
Fideline Tchuenbou-Magaia
Yulong Ding
Yongliang Li
Fig.1  Illustration of the different pathways for CO2, N2 and O2 separation [10].
Function Material Features
Core AMP Highest CO2 loading capacity, low regeneration temp
Shell TEOS Permeability to gas
Immiscible phase Mineral oil Immiscibility with core
Tab.1  Important features of the materials used for microencapsulation
Fig.2  Schematic diagram of the microencapsulation of AMP with TEOS (*varying stirring speeds used).
Fig.3  Schematic diagram of pressure rig set-up for CO2 absorption testing (* Effective volume of pressure rig= 61 mL, including pressure cell, connections, valves and tubings).
Fig.4  Polycondensation of TEOS with hydroxyl ions [21], where R represents the alkyl group, C2H5.
Fig.5  Surface structure of microcapsules (TM3030). (a) Surface Structure of microcapsules; (b) high magnification of microcapsule surface.
Fig.6  Morphology of microcapsules with AMP as core and silica as a shell. (1a) Sample 1: single microcapsule; (1b) Sample 1: single microcapsule with agglomeration; (2a) Sample 2: single microcapsule; (2b) Sample 2: Microcapsule with agglomeration, (2c) Sample 2: broken microcapsule for shell thickness example; (3a) Sample 3: single microcapsules; (3b) Sample 3: microcapsule with agglomeration.
Sample BET surface area /(m2·g?1) Pore volume /(m2·g?1) Average pore size /Å
1 29 0.051 71
2 92 0.097 43
3 34 0.061 72
Tab.2  Specific surface area, pore volume and average pore size of sample 1, 2 and 3
Fig.7  Comparison of stirring speed effect on particle size distribution.
Fig.8  Thermal property comparison of pure AMP (liquid) against the encapsulated sample 1, 2 and 3.
Fig.9  Microcapsule morphology after ten continuous cycling. (a) Sample 1: microcapsule with crack and dents; (b) Sample 2: microcapsules with dents; (c) Sample 3: microcapsule with dents.
Fig.10  FTIR spectra of pure, liquid AMP and encapsulated AMP. Samples 1?3 represented as on graph due to same transmittance. The area of interest is indicate.
Fig.11  Color change of sample from (a) blue to (b) yellow after CO2 exposure.
Fig.12  Reversible carbamate reaction.
Fig.13  Pressure behaviour comparison of control and sample 2.
Fig.14  Carbon dioxide absorption comparison of encapsulated sample against pure core material.
Fig.15  Pay load of encapsulated sample in wt-%.
Fig.16  Effect of temperature on absorption capacity.
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