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Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering

Front. Chem. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 517-530     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-018-1781-0
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Effect of TiO2 loading on the morphology and CO2/CH4 separation performance of PEBAX-based membranes
Navid Azizi1, Mojgan Isanejad1, Toraj Mohammadi1(), Reza M. Behbahani2
1. Research and Technology Center of Membrane Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran, Iran
2. Gas Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran
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Abstract

Membranes have attracted much attention as economical methods for industrial chemical processes. The effects of the titanium dioxide nanoparticle load on the morphology and CO2/CH4 separation performance of poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBAX-1657) mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were investigated from pressures of 3–12 bar and temperatures of 30°C–60°C. The PEBAX membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy and tensile strength analysis. The incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into the polymeric MMMs improved the CO2/CH4 gas separation performance (both the permeability and selectivity) of the membranes. The CO2 permeability and ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity values of the nanocomposite membrane loaded with 8 wt-% TiO2 were 172.32 Barrer and 24.79, respectively whereas those of the neat membrane were 129.87 Barrer and 21.39, respectively.

Keywords mixed matrix membrane      TiO2 nanoparticles      PEBAX-1657      CO2/CH4 separation     
Corresponding Authors: Toraj Mohammadi   
Online First Date: 21 March 2019    Issue Date: 22 August 2019
 Cite this article:   
Navid Azizi,Mojgan Isanejad,Toraj Mohammadi, et al. Effect of TiO2 loading on the morphology and CO2/CH4 separation performance of PEBAX-based membranes[J]. Front. Chem. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 517-530.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/10.1007/s11705-018-1781-0
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fcse/EN/Y2019/V13/I3/517
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Navid Azizi
Mojgan Isanejad
Toraj Mohammadi
Reza M. Behbahani
Property Typical value
PE content /wt-% 60
Density /(g·cm?3) 1.14
Water absorption at 23°C and 24 h in water /% 120
Melting point /°C 204
Glass transition temperature /°C −56
Tensile-stress at break /MPa 32
Chemical structure
Tab.1  Physical properties of PEBAX-1657
Property Value
Average diameter /nm 21
Density /(g·cm?3) 4.26
Specific surface area /(m2·g−1) 35–65
Melting point /°C 1850
Tab.2  Physical properties of the TiO2 nanoparticles
Fig.1  Schematic view of the setup used to perform gas permeation experiments
Fig.2  Cross-sectional FESEM images of PEBAX-based membranes containing (a) 0, (b) 2, (c) 4, (d) 6, and (e) 8 wt-% TiO2 nanoparticles
Fig.3  XRD patterns of neat PEBAX, PEBAX/TiO2 4 wt-% and PEBAX/TiO2 8 wt-%
Fig.4  FTIR spectra of TiO2, neat PEBAX, PEBAX/TiO2 4 wt-% and PEBAX/TiO2 8 wt-%
Fig.5  TGA curves for neat PEBAX, PEBAX/TiO2 4 wt-% and PEBAX/TiO2 8 wt-% MMMs
Membrane Tensile strain /% Tensile modulus /MPa
Neat PEBAX-1657 257.8 162.3
PEBAX/TiO2 4 wt-% 238.4 153.5
PEBAX/TiO2 8 wt-% 217.7 142.9
Tab.3  Tensile analysis of the prepared membranes
Fig.6  AFM images of the prepared membranes: (a) Neat PEBAX-1657, (b) PEBAX/TiO2 4 wt-% and (c) PEBAX/TiO2 8 wt-%
Fig.7  CO2 and CH4 permeability values through the membranes with different TiO2 nanoparticle contents at 3 bar and 30°C
Fig.8  Ideal CO2/CH4 selectivities for the prepared membranes with different TiO2 nanoparticle content at 3 bar and 30°C
Fig.9  Effect of feed pressure on CO2 and CH4 permeability values for the neat PEBAX membrane and the MMMs containing 4 wt-% and 8 wt-% of TiO2
Fig.10  Effect of feed pressure on the ideal CO2/CH4 selectivity for the neat PEBAX membrane and the MMMs containing 4 wt-% and 8 wt-% of TiO2 at 30°C
Fig.11  Effect of feed temperature on CO2 and CH4 permeability values for the neat PEBAX membrane and the MMMs containing 4 wt-% and 8 wt-% of TiO2 at 3 bar
Fig.12  Effect of feed temperature on the ideal CO2/CH4 selectivities of the neat PEBAX membrane and the MMMs containing 4 wt-% and 8 wt-% of TiO2 at 3 bar
Membrane type Filler content /wt-% Pressure /bar Temperature /°C PCO2 /Barrer αCO2/ CH2 Ref.
PEBAX-1657/ ZIF-8 ? 2 25 449.0 14.7 [28]
PEBAX-1657/ SAPO-34 23 7 35 135.0 20.8 [30]
PEBAX-1657/MWNTs-NH2 33 7 35 361 15.5 [73]
PEBAX-1657/
PEG-400/ZnO
PEG-400:40
ZnO:4
3 25 94.5 24.2 [74]
PEBAX-1657/ ImGO 0.8 4 25 64.0 25.1 [56]
PEBAX-1657/ zeolite 4A 10 5 25 97.0 26.4 [75]
PEBAX-2533/ ZIF-8 15 2 25 574.0 10.4 [76]
PEBAX-1074/ PEG 50 5 35 36.4 26.0 [77]
PEBAX-2533/ ZIF-11 70 2 20 402.9 12.5 [60]
PEBAX-1657/ TiO2 8 3 30 172.3 24.8 This study
Tab.4  Comparison of CO2/CH4 separation efficiency of the membrane prepared in this study with other prepared membranes
Fig.13  Comparison of CO2/CH4 separation efficiency of the prepared membranes with Robeson’s upper bounds
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