In this paper, we first propose a new kind of imprecise information system, in which there exist conjunctions (∧’s), disjunctions (∨’s) or negations (¬’s). Second, this paper discusses the relation that only contains ∧’s based on relational database theory, and gives the syntactic and semantic interpretation for ∧ and the definitions of decomposition and composition and so on. Then, we prove that there exists a kind of decomposition such that if a relation satisfies some property then it can be decomposed into a group of classical relations (relations do not contain ∧) that satisfy a set of functional dependencies and the original relation can be synthesized from this group of classical relations. Meanwhile, this paper proves the soundness theorem and the completeness theorem for this decomposition.Consequently, a relation containing ∧’s can be equivalently transformed into a group of classical relations that satisfy a set of functional dependencies. Finally, we give the definition that a relation containing ∧’s satisfies a set of functional dependencies. Therefore, we can introduce other classical relational database theories to discuss this kind of relation.
Target tracking applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) may provide a high performance only when a reliable collection of target positions from sensor nodes is ensured. The performance of target tracking in WSNs is affected by transmission delay, failure probability, and nodes energy depletion. These negative factors can be effectively mitigated by decreasing the amount of transmitted data. Thus, the minimization of data transfers from sensor nodes is an important research issue for the development of WSN-based target tracking applications. In this paper, a data suppression approach is proposed for target chasing in WSNs. The aim of the considered target chasing task is to catch a moving target by a mobile sink in the shortest time. According to the introduced approach, a sensor node sends actual target position to the mobile sink only if this information is expected to be useful for minimizing the time in which target will be caught by the sink. The presented method allows sensor nodes to evaluate the usefulness of sensor readings and select those readings that have to be reported to the sink. Experiments were performed in a simulation environment to compare effectiveness of the proposed approach against state-of-the-art methods. Results of the experiments show that the presented suppression method enables a substantial reduction in the amount of transmitted data with no significant negative effect on target chasing time.
In this paper, an efficient page rank (PR) exact algorithm is proposed, which can improve the computation efficiency without sacrificing results accuracy. The existing exact algorithms are generally based on the original power method (PM). In order to reduce the number of I/Os required to improve efficiency, they partition the big graph into multiple smaller ones that can be totally fitted in memory. The algorithmproposed in this paper can further reduce the required number of I/Os. Instead of partitioning the graph into the general subgraphs, our algorithm partitions graph into a special kind of subgraphs: SCCs (strongly connected components), the nodes in which are reachable to each other. By exploiting the property of SCC, some theories are proposed, based on which the computation iterations can be constrained on these SCC subgraphs. Our algorithm can reduce lots of I/Os and save a large amount of computations, as well as keeping the results accuracy. In a word, our algorithm is more efficient among the existing exact algorithms. The experiments demonstrate that the algorithms proposed in this paper can make an obvious efficiency improvement and can attain high accurate results.
Instagram is a popular photo-sharing social application. It is widely used by tourists to record their journey information such as location, time and interest. Consequently, a huge volume of geo-tagged photos with spatio-temporal information are generated along tourist’s travel trajectories. Such Instagram photo trajectories consist of travel paths, travel density distributions, and traveller behaviors, preferences, and mobility patterns. Mining Instagram photo trajectories is thus very useful for many mobile and location-based social applications, including tour guide and recommender systems. However, we have not found any work that extracts interesting group-like travel trajectories from Instagram photos asynchronously taken by different tourists. Motivated by this, we propose a novel concept: coterie, which reveals representative travel trajectory patterns hidden in Instagram photos taken by users at shared locations and paths. Our work includes the discovery of (1) coteries, (2) closed coteries, and (3) the recommendation of popular travel routes based on closed coteries. For this, we first build a statistically reliable trajectory database from Instagram geo-tagged photos. These trajectories are then clustered by the DBSCAN method to find tourist density. Next, we transform each raw spatio-temporal trajectory into a sequence of clusters. All discriminative closed coteriesare further identified by a Cluster-Growth algorithm. Finally, distance-aware and conformityaware recommendation strategies are applied on closed coteriesto recommend popular tour routes. Visualized demos and extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our methods.
Differential evolution (DE) is a kind of evolutionary algorithms, which is suitable for solving complex optimization problems. Mutation is a crucial step in DE that generates new solutions from old ones. It was argued and has been commonly adopted in DE that the solutions selected for mutation should have mutually different indices. This restrained condition, however, has not been verified either theoretically or empirically yet. In this paper, we empirically investigate the selection of solutions for mutation in DE. From the observation of the extensive experiments, we suggest that the restrained condition could be relaxed for some classical DE versions as well as some advanced DE variants. Moreover, relaxing the restrained condition may also be useful in designing better future DE algorithms.
A B4-valued propositional logic will be proposed in this paper which there are three unary logical connectives ∼1, ∼2, ¬ and two binary logical connectives ∧, ∨, and a Gentzen-typed deduction system will be given so that the system is sound and complete with B4-valued semantics, where B4 is a Boolean algebra.
Design of rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) columns has been a big concern owing to their complex constraint mechanism. Generally, most existing methods are based on simplified mechanical model with limited experimental data, which is not reliable under many conditions, e.g., columns using high strength materials. Artificial neural network (ANN) models have shown the effectiveness to solve complex problems in many areas of civil engineering in recent years. In this paper, ANN models were employed to predict the axial bearing capacity of rectangular CFT columns based on the experimental data. 305 experimental data from articles were collected, and 275 experimental samples were chosen to train the ANN models while 30 experimental samples were used for testing. Based on the comparison among different models, artificial neural network model1 (ANN1) and artificial neural network model2 (ANN2) with a 20- neuron hidden layer were chosen as the fit prediction models. ANN1 has five inputs: the length (D) and width (B) of cross section, the thickness of steel (t), the yield strength of steel (fy), the cylinder strength of concrete ( f'c ). ANN2 has ten inputs: D, B, t, fy, f'c, the length to width ratio (D/B), the length to thickness ratio (D/t), the width to thickness ratio (B/t), restraint coefficient (ξ), the steel ratio (α). The axial bearing capacity is the output data for both models.The outputs from ANN1 and ANN2 were verified and compared with those from EC4, ACI, GJB4142 and AISC360-10. The results show that the implemented models have good prediction and generalization capacity. Parametric study was conducted using ANN1 and ANN2 which indicates that effect law of basic parameters of columns on the axial bearing capacity of rectangular CFT columns differs from design codes.The results also provide convincing design reference to rectangular CFT columns.
Subcellular localization of proteins can provide key hints to infer their functions and structures in cells. With the breakthrough of recent molecule imaging techniques, the usage of 2D bioimages has become increasingly popular in automatically analyzing the protein subcellular location patterns. Compared with the widely used protein 1D amino acid sequence data, the images of protein distribution are more intuitive and interpretable, making the images a better choice at many applications for revealing the dynamic characteristics of proteins, such as detecting protein translocation and quantification of proteins. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the recent progresses in the field of automated image-based protein subcellular location prediction, and classified them into four categories including growing of bioimage databases, description of subcellular location distribution patterns, classification methods, and applications of the prediction systems. Besides, we also discussed some potential directions in this field.
Machine-learning techniques have recently been proved to be successful in various domains, especially in emerging commercial applications. As a set of machinelearning techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs), requiring considerable amount of computation and memory, are one of the most popular algorithms and have been applied in a broad range of applications such as speech recognition, face identification, natural language processing, ect. Conventionally, as a straightforward way, conventional CPUs and GPUs are energy-inefficient due to their excessive effort for flexibility. According to the aforementioned situation, in recent years, many researchers have proposed a number of neural network accelerators to achieve high performance and low power consumption. Thus, the main purpose of this literature is to briefly review recent related works, as well as the DianNao-family accelerators. In summary, this review can serve as a reference for hardware researchers in the area of neural networks.