Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

ISSN 2095-7505 (Print)
ISSN 2095-977X (Online)
CN 10-1204/S
Postal Subscription Code 80-906

Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering has been added to Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) on September 12, 2016.

This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Guidelines for Authors

Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

General Introduction

Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering (FASE) is an authoritative source for professionals with interests encompassing agricultural science and engineering, supervised by the Chinese Academy of Engineering, administered by Higher Education Press of China and China Agricultural University, and published by Higher Education Press of China on a quarterly basis in English. The journal is published both in print and online.

Types of Articles

The following types of articles can be submitted to the journal:

RESEARCH ARTICLE. Original research report. The total length of a manuscript including figures, tables and references must not exceed 8000 words.

REVIEW. An in-depth overview of certain topic or a review of the author’s own work or the work of one research group. The format and length of review articles are more flexible than a full article.

LETTER. A concise, independent report representing significant contribution to agricultural science and engineering. It is not intended for publication of preliminary results, only for results of exceptional and immediate importance. It should be no more than 2000 words, cite at least 8 references and up to three figures and tables.

Ethics in Publishing (Duties of Authors)

a. Reporting standards
Authors reporting original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the article. An article should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

b. Data access and retention
Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with an article for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

c. Originality and plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that these have been appropriately cited or quoted.
Plagiarism takes many forms, from misrepresenting another’s article as the author’s own, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another’s article (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

d. Concurrent publication
An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published article. Publication of some kinds of articles (e.g., clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one journal is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.
Manuscripts submitted to this journal must not be under simultaneous consideration by any other publisher and should not have been published elsewhere in substantially similar form. No part of an article which has been published by Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering in China may be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher.

e. Acknowledgement of sources
Proper acknowledgement of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential deeply in the reported works. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.

f. Authorship of the article
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the article, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the article and have agreed to its submission for publication.

g. Hazards and human or animal subjects
The authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript, if their work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, or involves the use of animal or human subjects. The manuscripts must contain a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them.

h. Fundamental errors in published work
When an author finds out a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the article. If the editor or the publisher receives notice from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the article or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original article.

Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author’s work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the journal is the safest course. All submissions to the journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

Copyright Statement

Copyright-owner grants Publisher to use, distribute and produce this paper under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (hereinafter referred to as the CC-BY ) in any medium, provided the original Copyright-owner and the source are credited. The full details of the CC-BY are available at Copyright-owner also grants the Publisher the exclusive rights to translate this Paper to any language, and publish, produce, distribute and use this translated version in any medium in accordance with CC-BY.
The copyright statement form must be submitted when the manuscript is accepted. Authors are asked to return by email or fax the signed statement to the Editorial Office of Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering.

Licencing Policy

The articles published in edited volumes are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY 4.0), a license which allows for the broadest possible reuse of published material. This is a human-readable summary of (and not a substitute for) the license. Under this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content, but allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.

Appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.For any reuse or redistribution of a work, users must also make clear the license terms under which the work was published. This broad license was developed to facilitate free access to, and unrestricted reuse of, original works of all types. Applying this standard license to your own work will ensure that it is freely and openly available in perpetuity.

Preparation of Electronic Versions & Submission

The manuscript should be submitted double-spaced in 12 point Times New Roman font, with default margins on all sides. To assist reviewers, please add line numbering to your manuscript. Include page numbers on all pages of the document, commencing with the title page as page 1.

Submission Requirements

a. Cover letter
A cover letter must accompany each submission indicating the name, address and telephone numbers (including mobile phone)of the author to whom all correspondence is to be addressed. An affiliation must be supplied for each author. Authors are also asked to provide the names and contact details for three potential reviewers (at least two international reviewers should be recommended for contributors from China) in the cover letter. However, the journal is not obliged to use the suggested reviewers. Final selection of reviewers will be determined by the editors.

b. Research highlights
Research highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Specifications: up to 5 bullet points can be included; the length of one bullet point should not exceed 85 characters (including spaces); only the core results of the manuscript should be covered.

c. Manuscript for research full article
Manuscripts should be in a Microsoft Word format. The following components are required for a complete manuscript: Title, Running title, Author name(s) and affiliation(s), Abstract, Keywords and speciality, Nomenclature (when needed), Main text (Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions), Acknowledgements, References, Appendixes, Figure captions, Tables.

d. Manuscript for review articles
Reviews give a general overview of a particular field, providing the reader with an appreciation of the importance of the work, historical context, a summary of recent developments and a entry point in the specialist literature. Manuscripts should be divided into appropriate sections, with an extensive list of references. In addition to undergoing the same rigorous level of technical peer-review as research articles, review articles will be critiqued based on the general impact of the field being reviewed, the relevance of the field to experimental mechanics, preexisting reviews of the field, and acknowledgement of the contributing author as a widely-recognised specialist, or having a track record for providing strong independent analysis, in the field. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that authors interested in submitting a review article correspond with the editor prior to submission. General formatting text, illustrations, and references are the same as outlined for research articles.

Manuscript Preparation

a. Title
The title of the article should be explicit, descriptive and as brief as possible – no more than 20 words in length. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

b. Running title 
A short version of the article title (up to 80 characters including space).

c. Author names and affiliations
Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. The telephone and mobile numbers (with country and area code) in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address of the corresponding author should be given.

d. Abstract
A concise and factual abstract of 250–300 words is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major message. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

e. Keywords and speciality
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords separated by commas, avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Use keywords that make your article easy detectable for interested readers in literature databases. Repeating terms in the title is usually not needed. Please also select at least 3 specialities during the online submission.

f. Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

g. Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

h. Results
Results should be clear and concise. Show only those experimental results that are relevant to your objectives and conclusions and which you want to discuss.

i. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. It should integrate your findings in a comprehensive picture and place them in the context of the existing literature. A combined Results and Discussion section can be appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

j. Conclusions
Summarize the results in words rather than numbers and elaborate on the extent to which the objectives of the study were met. Do not include information from a literature search. Instead, focus on the primary conclusions of the study.

k. Headings and subheadings  
Headings and subheadings should be used throughout the text to divide the subject matter into its important, logical parts. Typical headings include: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, Appendixes and References.

l. Tables
Note that the maximum number of figures/tables allowed for research full articles is 8 per article (i.e., a combination of figures and tables).

Table requirements: Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.
(1) Supply units of measure at the heads of the columns. Abbreviations that are used only in a table should be defined in the footnotes to that table.
(2) Should always use rows and columns to correlate two variables. Submitted single-spaced and in the word processing software used. Do not embed tables as graphic files, document objects, or pictures.
(3) Submitted as three-line tables, that is, there are three horizontal lines: one under the legend, one under the column heads, and one below the body. Vertical lines are generally not used.
(4) Label each table at the top with a Roman numeral followed by the table title. Insert explanatory material and footnotes below the table. Designate footnotes using lowercase superscript letters (a, b, c) reading horizontally across the table.
(5) Unless needed, all the words within the tables should be in lowercases.
(6) Must be sequentially numbered and called out in the text as, e.g., Table 1.
(7) Each table should be submitted on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text.

m. Figures
Graphs should be self-explanatory. Readers should be able to understand them at a glance. Dimensional drawings and diagrams should include only the essential details and as little lettering as possible. They should present more of a picture than a working drawing.

Figure requirements:
Size: should be drawn in the size of them virtually appear.
Numbering and title: number all figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations) in the order of their citation in the text and cited as, e.g., Fig. 1. Include a title for each figure (a brief phrase, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words). Use (a), (b), (c), ect. to give titles for subfigures if there are any.
Figure quality: should be sharp, noise-free, and of good contrast. All lettering should be large enough to permit legible reduction.
Color of figures: Better drawn in black and white for line-drawing and color for images.
Figure file formats and location in manuscript: should not be embedded in word processing documents but rather submitted in Origin, Excel, TIFF, EPS or CorelDraw file formats. Legends should appear, separate from the figures themselves, where the figures should be located within the article.
Maps: please use the authorized maps as the basis for map figure drawing (e.g., maps published by China Map Press). Any maps drawn without the authorized basis have to be submitted with the certificate from the Surveying and Mapping management. All the maps should follow the publishing requirements released by the government.

Unless needed, all the words within the figures should be in lowercases.

n. Formulae and equations
(1) Formulae should be typewritten whenever possible.
(2) It is extremely important that all mathematical symbols and letters used are identified and listed and that the required style of appearance of such symbols is clearly indicated, e.g., bold face, italics, script, outline, etc.
(3) Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly.
(4) Identify in the margin any symbols that might be confused with similar symbols.
(5) The words Equation or Equations should appear in full at the beginning of sentences but be abbreviated to Eq. or Eqs. elsewhere.
(6) A nomenclature can be included (with the use of = signs) after the abstract if there is a significant number of symbols in the article.
(7) Equations should be located separately from other lines if they are long or complicated.

o. Abbreviations
Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text. Define all abbreviations at first mention in the text.

p. Footnotes
Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it will be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.
If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.

q. Units of measure
Laboratory values are expressed using conventional units of measure, with relevant Système International (SI) conversion factors expressed secondarily (in parentheses) only at first mention. In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI should be presented in the footnote or legend. The metric system is preferred for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. For more details, see the Units of Measure conversion table (absent)

r. Acknowledgements
The Acknowledgements section is a listing of contributions, credits and other similar information included before the References. Conflicts of interest and financial disclosures must be listed in this section. Authors should obtain written permission to include the names of individuals in the Acknowledgements.

s. Supplementary materials (if needed)

As an accompaniment to the main manuscript, authors may submit supplementary materials for posting at the FASE Web site. To be accepted for posting, supplementary materials must be essential to the scientific integrity and excellence of the paper. The material is subject to the same editorial standards and peer-review procedures as the print publication.

Supplementary materials are directly relevant to the conclusions of an article that cannot be included in the printed version owing to space or format constraints. Supplementary materials may consist of data files, graphics, movies or extensive tables.

For a given paper, supplementary materials are subject to some broad limits on file size, so authors should make every effort to keep file sizes reasonable and should carefully consider whether the material is genuinely essential to the paper in question.

t. Citations and references    EndNote Style
In-text citations must agree with the references in either numbering or order. The references should be presented completely and without mistakes, and should be the original publication. References cited in the text should be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals. The numerals should be in bracket, superscript. In the reference section, references should be listed in the same order as cited in the text. Grouped citations should be separated by comma (two or non-consecutive references) or connected by hyphen (no less than three consecutive references): e.g., [1, 2], [1-5], or [1-3, 5]. Journal names should be given in full and typed in italics. Volumes should be in bold.

There should be at least 20 but no more than 35 references for research article; and a maximum of 100 for reviews.  Some examples to follow are provide below.

1.von Caemmerer S, Quick W P, Furbank R T. The development of C4 rice: current progress and future challenges. Sciences, 2012, 336(6089):1671–1672 (for journal paper)
2.Kan Z R, Pu C, Qi J Y, Ma S T, Liu P, Zhao X, Zhang H L. Effects of biochar on soil water and grain yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Journal of China Agricultural University, 2019, 24(4): 1–10 (in Chinese) (for Chinese journal paper)
3.Dinges R. Natural systems for water pollution control. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982 (for monograph)
4.Huang J. In the name of gene. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2018 (in Chinese) (for Chinese monograph)
5.Schlessinger D, Schaechter M. Bacterial toxins. In: Schaechter M, Medoff G, Eisenstein B I, eds. Mechanisms of microbial disease. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1993, 162–175 (for a chapter in a book)
6.Liu C X. Study on the measures for improving constructed wetlands’ performance in treating domestic wastewater. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2003 (in Chinese) (for dissertation)
7.Cui F Y, Ren G. Pilot study of process of bathing wastewater treatment for reuse. In: Proceedings of the International Water Association Conference 2005, Xi’an. Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press, 2005, 87–92 (for proceedings)
8.Polito V S. Calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors: effect on pollen germination and tube growth. In: Mulvshy D L, Ottaviaro E, eds. Pollen: biology and implication for plant breeding. New York: Elsevier, 1983, 53–60 (for symposium)
9.Morris C F. Development of soft kernel durum wheat. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering, 2019. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.15302/J-FASE-2019259 (for online article)

u. Notification
The corresponding author will be notified by the editors of the acceptance of article and invited to supply an electronic version of the accepted text, if this is not already available.

Proofreading and Production

Proofs will be sent to the author and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt. Authors should clarify any questions of the proof in a query file. No new information can be inserted at the time of proofreading. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before responding with a single e-mail or fax; no subsequent corrections will be accepted.