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Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

Front. Agr. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 3 Issue (3) : 195-205     https://doi.org/10.15302/J-FASE-2016109
REVIEW |
Electrolyzed water and its application in animal houses
Weichao ZHENG,Li NI,Baoming LI()
Key Lab of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture/Beijing Engineering Research Center on Animal Healthy Environment/College of Water Resources & Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
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Abstract

Electrolyzed water (EW) can be produced by electrolysis of a dilute salt solution. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0–6.5) and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW, pH 6.5–8.5) are considered healthy and environmentally friendly because no hazardous chemicals are added in its production, there is reduced corrosion of surfaces and it minimizes the potential for damage to animal and human health. Over the last decade, EW has become increasingly popular as an alternative disinfectant for decontamination in animal houses. However, there have been some issues related to EW that are not well known, including different mechanisms for generation of SAEW and NEW, and the antimicrobial mechanism of EW. This review covers the definitions of SAEW and NEW, different generation systems for SAEW and NEW, the antimicrobial mecha- nism of EW, and recent developments related to the application of SAEW and NEW in animal houses.

Keywords disinfection      poultry and livestock      slightly acidic electrolyzed water      neutral electrolyzed water     
Corresponding Authors: Baoming LI   
Just Accepted Date: 18 July 2016   Online First Date: 03 August 2016    Issue Date: 21 September 2016
 Cite this article:   
Weichao ZHENG,Li NI,Baoming LI. Electrolyzed water and its application in animal houses[J]. Front. Agr. Sci. Eng. , 2016, 3(3): 195-205.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/10.15302/J-FASE-2016109
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fase/EN/Y2016/V3/I3/195
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Electrolyzed water Electrolyte/Electrolytic cell Generation mechanism References
SAEW HCl/Non-membrane Dilute HCl or NaCl solution is electrolyzed in a non-membrane electrolytic cell to produce highly concentrated HOCl, which is then diluted with tap water. [28,37,38,40,43,44,47,5153,55,57,6567]
SAEW NaCl and HCl/Non-membrane Dilute NaCl and HCl solution is electrolyzed in a non-membrane electrolytic cell. [1,2,15,41,54,61,68,69]
NEW NaCl/Non-membrane Dilute NaCl solution is electrolyzed in a non-membrane electrolytic cell. [60,7073]
NEW NaCl/Non-membrane Dilute NaCl solution is electrolyzed in a non-membrane electrolytic cell to produce EW with highly available chlorine, which is then diluted with tap water. [26,27,29,32,74,75]
SAEW or NEW NaCl/Membrane Dilute NaCl solution is electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell with a membrane. A certain proportion of the Alkaline EW formed at the cathode chamber is redirected into the anode chamber. [25,34,46,64,7678]
Tab.1  Types of generation systems for SAEW and NEW
Animal houses Surface Microbes pH ACC/(mg·L-1) Treatment Microbial concentration/(CFU·cm-2) Reduction/% Reference
Before After
Layer breeding house Floor Culturable bacteria 6.2 250 Cleaning and spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) 1.02 × 105 1.66 × 104 83.7 [1]
Walls 1.02 × 104 0.09 × 104 91.2
Feed trough 3.47 × 103 1.35 × 103 61.1
Water pipes 4.36 × 105 2.45 × 104 94.4
Cage floor 8.51 × 103 6.92 × 103 18.7
Swine house Floor Culturable bacteria 6.3–6.5 300 Flushing 7.08 × 107 6.03 × 106 91.5 [2]
Walls 1.51 × 104 <10 >99.9
Rails 7.94 × 105 6.46 × 104 91.9
Laying hen house Floor Culturable bacteria 5.7–5.8 60–100 Spraying (110 mL·m-2 floor) 4.27 × 105 (1.48-0.85) × 105 65.3-80.1
Coliforms 3.31 × 104 (1.91-1.07) × 104 42.3-67.7 [3]
Staphylococci 4.57 × 104 (1.91-1.35) × 104 58.2-70.5
Yeasts and molds 2.45 × 104 (0.91-0.55) × 104 62.9-77.6
Walls Culturable bacteria 5.7–5.8 60–100 Spraying (110 mL·m-2floor) 3.98 × 103 (0.79-0.24) × 103 80.2-94.0
Coliforms 371.5 79.4-14.5 78.6-96.1
Staphylococci 257.0 70.8-19.1 72.5-92.6
Yeasts and molds 199.5 18.2-15.8 90.9-92.1
Feed trough Culturable bacteria 5.7–5.8 60–100 Spraying (110 mL·m-2 floor) 1.70 × 103 (0.19-0.07) × 103 88.8-95.9
Coliforms 426.6 29.5-2.4 93.1-99.4
Staphylococci 17.4 4.6-1.3 73.6-92.5
Yeasts and molds 199.5 33.9-25.1 83.0-87.4
Egg conveyor Culturable bacteria 5.7–5.8 60–100 Spraying (110 mL·m-2 floor) 3.54 × 105 (1.20-0.62) × 105 66.1-82.5
Coliforms 3.39 × 104 (0.93-0.50) × 104 72.6-85.3
Staphylococci 3.24 × 104 (0.85-0.69) × 104 73.8-78.7
Yeasts and molds 3.09 × 103 (1.02-0.49) × 103 67.0-84.1
Tab.2  Antimicrobial effectiveness of spraying SAEW on surfaces in animal houses
Indoor air Microbes pH ACC/(mg·L-1) Treatment Spraying method/Starting time Microbial Concentration/(CFU·m-3) Ratio2 Reference
Before After1
Laying hen house Culturable bacteria no spraying (Control) 1.55 × 103 6.61 × 103 4.26 [15]
5.8–6.2 156 spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) high-pressure nozzle sprayer (manual spraying)/11:00 a.m. 1.66 × 103 3.47 × 103 2.09
5.8–6.2 202 spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) 1.48 × 103 1.26 × 103 0.85
5.8–6.2 262 spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) 2.45 × 103 0.41 × 103 0.17
5.8–6.2 262 spraying (90 mL·m-2 floor) 2.09 × 103 3.63 × 103 1.74
Layer breeding house Culturable bacteria no spraying (Control) 1.82 × 105 1.90 × 105 1.04 [54]
5.3-6.3 250 cleaning+ spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) high-pressure nozzle sprayer (manual spraying)/11:00 a.m. 1.57 × 105 0.95 × 105 0.61
Fungi no spraying (Control) 5.67 × 103 6.13 × 103 1.08
5.3-6.3 250 cleaning+ spraying (120 mL·m-2 floor) high-pressure nozzle sprayer (manual spraying)/11:00 a.m. 7.28 × 103 5.01 × 103 0.69
Aviary laying hen chamber Culturable bacteria no spraying (Control) 2.31 × 105 4.72 × 105 2.12 [33]
spraying water (80 mL·m-2 floor) high air pressure spray gun (manual spraying)/14:00 p.m. 2.04 × 105 4.01 × 105 1.97
6.0 80 spraying (80 mL·m-2 floor) 2.74 × 105 2.25 × 105 0.92
Tab.3  Reduction in airborne microbial by spraying SAEW in animal houses
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